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2023-12-12 Tue

#5342. 切り取り (clipping) による語形成の類型論 [word_formation][shortening][abbreviation][clipping][terminology][polysemy][homonymy][morphology][typology][apostrophe][hypocorism][name_project][onomastics][personal_name][australian_english][new_zealand_english][emode][ame_bre]

 語形成としての切り取り (clipping) については,多くの記事で取り上げてきた.とりわけ形態論の立場から「#893. shortening の分類 (1)」 ([2011-10-07-1]) で詳しく紹介した.
 先日12月8日の Voicy 「英語の語源が身につくラジオ」 (heldio) の配信回にて「#921. 2023年の英単語はコレ --- rizz」と題して,clipping による造語とおぼしき最新の事例を取り上げた.



 この配信回では,2023年の Oxford Word of the Year が rizz に決定したというニュースを受け,これが charisma の clipping による短縮形であることを前提として charisma の語源を紹介した.
 rizzcharisma の clipping による語形成であることを受け入れるとして,もとの単語の語頭でも語末でもなく真ん中部分が切り出された短縮語である点は特筆に値する.このような語形成は,それほど多くないと見込まれるからだ.「#893. shortening の分類 (1)」 ([2011-10-07-1]) の "Mesonym" で取り上げたように,例がないわけではないが,やはり珍しいには違いない.以下の解説によると "fore-and-aft clipping" と呼んでもよい.
 heldio のリスナーからも関連するコメント・質問が寄せられたので,この問題と関連して McArthur の英語学用語辞典より "clipping" を引用しておきたい (223--24) .

CLIPPING [1930s in this sense]. Also clipped form, clipped word, shortening. An abbreviation formed by the loss of word elements, usually syllabic: pro from professional, tec from detective. The process is attested from the 16c (coz from cousin 1559, gent from gentleman 1564); in the early 18c, Swift objected to the reduction of Latin mobile vulgus (the fickle throng) to mob. Clippings can be either selective, relating to one sense of a word only (condo is short for condominium when it refers to accommodation, not to joint sovereignty), or polysemic (rev stands for either revenue or revision, and revs for the revolutions of wheels). There are three kinds of clipping:

(1) Back-clippings, in which an element or elements are taken from the end of a word: ad(vertisement), chimp(anzee), deli(catessen), hippo(potamus), lab(oratory), piano(forte), reg(ulation)s. Back-clipping is common with diminutives formed from personal names Cath(erine) Will(iam). Clippings of names often undergo adaptations: Catherine to the pet forms Cathie, Kate, Katie, William to Willie, Bill, Billy. Sometimes, a clipped name can develop a new sense: willie a euphemism for penis, billy a club or a male goat. Occasionally, the process can be humorously reversed: for example, offering in a British restaurant to pay the william.
(2) Fore-clippings, in which an element or elements are taken from the beginning of a word: ham(burger), omni(bus), violon(cello), heli(copter), alli(gator), tele(phone), earth(quake). They also occur with personal names, sometimes with adaptations: Becky for Rebecca, Drew for Andrew, Ginny for Virginia. At the turn of the century, a fore-clipped word was usually given an opening apostrophe, to mark the loss: 'phone, 'cello, 'gator. This practice is now rare.
(3) Fore-and-aft clippings, in which elements are taken from the beginning and end of a word: in(flu)enza, de(tec)tive. This is commonest with longer personal names: Lex from Alexander, Liz from Elizabeth. Such names often demonstrate the versatility of hypocoristic clippings: Alex, Alec, Lex, Sandy, Zander; Eliza, Liz, Liza, Lizzie, Bess, Betsy, Beth, Betty.

Clippings are not necessarily uniform throughout a language: mathematics becomes maths in BrE and math in AmE. Reverend as a title is usually shortened to Rev or Rev., but is Revd in the house style of Oxford University Press. Back-clippings with -ie and -o are common in AusE and NZE: arvo afternoon, journo journalist. Sometimes clippings become distinct words far removed from the applications of the original full forms: fan in fan club is from fanatic; BrE navvy, a general labourer, is from a 19c use of navigator, the digger of a 'navigation' or canal. . . .


 ・ McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: OUP, 1992.

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