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2023-08-01 Tue

#5209. 他動性 (transitivity) とは何か? (3) [transitivity][termonology][verb][grammar][syntax][construction][semantic_role][semantics]

 他動性 (transitivity) について,2回にわたって論じてきた.

 ・ 「#5202. 他動性 (transitivity) とは何か?」 ([2023-07-25-1])
 ・ 「#5204. 他動性 (transitivity) とは何か? (2)」 [2023-07-27-1]

 今回は Bussmann (494--95) の用語辞典より transitivity の項を引用する.

Valence property of verbs which require a direct object, e.g. read, see, hear. Used more broadly, verbs which govern other objects (e.g. dative, genitive) can also be termed 'transitive'; while only verbs which have no object at all (e.g. sleep, rain) would be intransitive. Hopper and Thompson (1980) introduce other factors of transitivity in the framework of universal grammar, which result in a graduated concept of transitivity. In addition to the selection of a direct object, other semantic roles as well as the properties of adverbials, mood, affirmation vs negation, and aspect play a role. A maximally transitive sentence contains a non-negated resultive verb in the indicative which requires at least a subject and direct object; the verb complements function as agent and affected object, are definite and animate . . . . Using data from various languages, Hopper and Thompson demonstrate that each of the factors listed above as affecting transitivity is important for making transivtivity through case, adpositions, or verbal inflection. Thus in many languages (e.g. Lithuanian, Polish, Middle High German) affirmation vs negation correlates with the selection of case for objects in such a way that in affirmative sentences the object is usually in the accusative, while in negated sentences the object of the same verb occurs in the genitive or in another oblique case.


 他動性とは,(1) グラデーションであること,(2) 言語によってその具現化の方法は様々であること,が分かってきた.理論的には,対格目的語を要求する,結果を表わす直説法の肯定動詞が,最大限に "transitive" であるということだ.

 ・ Bussmann, Hadumod. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trans. and ed. Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzizi. London: Routledge, 1996.

Referrer (Inside): [2023-09-23-1]

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