hellog〜英語史ブログ     前の日     次の日     最新     2016-08     検索ページへ     ランダム表示    

hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2016-08-01

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

2016-08-01 Mon

#2653. 形態論を構成する部門 [terminology][morphology][morpheme][compound][derivation][inflection]

 形態論 (morphology) という部門は,屈折形態論 (inflectional morphology) と派生形態論 (derivational morphology) に分けられるのが慣例である.この2分法は,「#456. 比較の -er, -est は屈折か否か」 ([2010-07-27-1]),「#1761. 屈折形態論と派生形態論の枠を取っ払う「高さ」と「高み」」 ([2014-02-21-1]) で触れたように,理論的な問題もなしではないが,現代言語学では広く前提とされている.
 この2分法を基準にさらに細分化してゆくことができるが,Bauer (33) が基本的な用語群を導入しつつ形態論を構成する部門や区分を概説してくれているので,それを引用しよう.ここには,昨日の記事「#2652. 複合名詞の意味的分類」 ([2016-07-31-1]) で紹介した区分も盛り込まれている.

Morphology deals with the internal structure of word-forms. In morphology, the analyst divides word-forms into their component formatives (most of which are morphs realizing roots or affixes), and attempts to account for the occurrence of each formative. Morphology can be divided into two main branches, inflectional morphology and word-formation (also called lexical morphology). Inflectional morphology deals with the various forms of lexemes, while word-formation deals with the formation of new lexemes from given bases. Word-formation can, in turn, be subdivided into derivation and compounding (or composition). Derivation is concerned with the formation of new lexemes by affixation, compounding with the formation of new lexemes from two (or more) potential stems. Derivation is sometimes also subdivided into class-maintaining derivation and class-changing derivation. Class-maintaining derivation is the derivation of new lexemes which are of the same form class ('part of speech') as the base from which they are formed, whereas class-changing derivation produces lexemes which belong to different form classes from their bases. Compounding is usually subdivided according to the form class of the resultant compound: that is, into compound nouns, compound adjectives, etc. It may also be subdivided according to the semantic criteria . . . into exocentric, endocentric, appositional and dvandva compounds.


 上の文章で説明されている形態論の分類のうち,主要な諸部門について図示しよう(Bauer (34) を少々改変して示した).

                                    [ The Basic Divisions of Morphology ]


                 ┌─── INFLECTIONAL                                                
                 │       (deals with forms                                   ┌─── CLASS-MAINTAINING
                 │       of individual lexemes)                              │
MORPHOLOGY ───┤                                ┌─── DERIVATION  ───┤
                 │                                │       (affixation)      │
                 │                                │                         └─── CLASS-CHANGING
                 └─── WORD-FORMATION ─────┤
                          (deals with              │                         ┌─── COMPOUND NOUNS
                          formation of             │                         │
                          new lexemes)             └─── COMPOUNDING ───┼─── COMPOUND VERBS
                                                            (more than one    │
                                                            root)             └─── COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

 形態論に関連する重要な術語については,「#700. 語,形態素,接辞,語根,語幹,複合語,基体」 ([2011-03-28-1]) も参照.

 ・Bauer, Laurie. English Word-Formation. Cambridge: CUP, 1983.

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

2019 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2018 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2017 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2016 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2015 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2014 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2013 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2012 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2011 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2010 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2009 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

最終更新時間: 2019-10-22 18:30

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow