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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2013-01-03

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2013-01-03 Thu

#1347. a lawyer turned teacher [passive][adjective][perfect]

 標題は「教師に転身した法律家」あるいは「法律家から転身した教師」の意味の句である.一般に,A turned B で「Bに転身したA」あるいは「Aから転身したB」となる.この句の turned は不完全自動詞 turn の過去分詞形で,直前の名詞を修飾しているが,一方で補語を後続させているのが特徴である.自動詞が過去分詞として名詞を修飾する用法は,「#752. 他動詞と自動詞の特殊な過去分詞形容詞」 ([2011-05-19-1]) で触れたように,いくつかある.状態の変化を表わす動詞の自動詞は古くは be により完了形を作ったので,a lawyer turned teacher は,"a lawyer who is turned teacher" (現代英語としては "a lawyer who has turned teacher")に対応することになる.B に相当する名詞は,通常,無冠詞で用いられる.an activist-turned-leader, an actor-turned-President, an engineer-turned-psychologist, a failed Kentucky lawyer turned smuggler, a lawyer-turned-legislator, a peeler-turned-pol, a writer-turned-governor などハイフンを伴う用例も多い.

 OED の turn, v. の関連する語義の記述と例文のいくつかをのぞいてみよう.

39. intr. with compl. To change so as to be, to become.
. . . .
b. with n. compl. (most commonly without article). Freq. as pa. pple. modifying a n.
. . . .
1945 Times 4 Aug. 5/2 Mr. Aneurin Bevan at the Ministry of Health..is conspicuously the poacher turned gamekeeper.
1964 Eng. Studies 45 382 Their Scandinavian conquerors-turned-neighbors.
1973 E. F. Schumacher Small is Beautiful i. iii. 44 The economist-turned-econometrician is unwilling..to face the question.
1982 Times Lit. Suppl. 10 Sept. 968/3 Jerome's father was a Nonconformist preacher, turned architect, turned mine-owner.


 「#752. 他動詞と自動詞の特殊な過去分詞形容詞」 ([2011-05-19-1]) では,自動詞の過去分詞が名詞に前置される例を挙げたが,今回の A turned B のように,自動詞の過去分詞が名詞に後置される例はそれほどお目にかからない.だが,ないわけではない.細江 (92--93) の挙げている例を掲載しよう.

 ・ A Daniel come to judgement! --- Shakespeare.
 ・ Everybody knows the treasure of the sailor arrived in port. --- Sir Walter Besant.
 ・ "My dear, you must ask Priscilla," he said in the once firm voice, now become rather broken. --- Eliot.
 ・ But Lottie staggered on the lowest verandah step like a bird fallen out of the nest. --- Mansfield.
 ・ The gallant old squire, lately gone to his rest. --- Thomas Hughes.
 ・ He looked at the little sister returned to him in her full womanly beauty. --- Eliot.
 ・ He looked as a man just risen from a long illness. --- William Morris.
 ・ The brave that are no more! / All sunk beneath the wave / Fast by their native shore. --- Cowper.
 ・ He led me to a place where I found a kind Englishman lived right in the midst of the natives. --- Mrs. Gaskell.
 ・ Here is a gentlemen come to see you. --- Bennett.
 ・ Ah, you are the young woman come to look after my birds? --- Hardy.


 ・ 細江 逸記 『英文法汎論』3版 泰文堂,1926年.

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