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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2023-11-15

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2023-11-15 Wed

#5315. 用語辞典でみる diglossia (3) [terminology][diglossia][bilingualism][sociolinguistics][hel_education][greek]

 「#5306. 用語辞典でみる diglossia (1)」 ([2023-11-06-1]),「#5311. 用語辞典でみる diglossia (2)」 ([2023-11-11-1]) に引き続き,diglossia (二言語変種使い分け)を考える.今回は Crystal の用語辞典より当該項目の解説を引く.

diglossia (n.) A term used in SOCIOLINGUISTICS to refer to a situation where two very different VARIETIES of a LANGUAGE CO-OCCUR throughout a SPEECH community, each with a distinct range of social function. Both varieties are STANDARDIZED to some degree, are felt to be alternatives by NATIVE-SPEAKERS and usually have special names. Sociolinguists usually talk in terms of a high (H) variety and a low (L) variety, corresponding broadly to a difference in FORMALITY: the high variety is learnt in school and tends to be used in church, on radio programmes, in serious literature, etc., and as a consequence has greater social prestige; the low variety tends to be used in family conversations, and other relatively informal settings. Diglossic situations may be found, for example, in Greek (High: Katharevousa; Low: Dhimotiki), Arabic (High: Classical; Low: Colloquial), and some varieties of German (H: Hochdeutsch; L: Schweizerdeutsch, in Switzerland). A situation where three varieties or languages are used with distinct functions within a community is called triglossia. An example of a triglossic situation is the use of French, Classical Arabic and Colloquial Tunisian Arabic in Tunisia, the first two being rated H and the Last L.


 典型的な事例としてアラビア語や(スイス)ドイツ語に加えて,ギリシア語の Katharevusa (古代ギリシャ語に範を取った文語体)と Dhimotiki (自然発達した通俗体)を挙げているのは貴重である(cf. 「#1454. ギリシャ語派(印欧語族)」 ([2013-04-20-1])).
 複数の用語辞典の記述を比べると,その用語・概念について何が広く共有されている中核的な情報なのかを確認できるし,逆に特定の辞典にしか挙げられていない事例や学説を集めていくことによって,周辺知識をもれなく拾うことができる.辞典も辞書も複数引くことを原則としたい.

 ・ Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008. 295--96.

Referrer (Inside): [2023-11-28-1] [2023-11-26-1]

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