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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2017-10-28

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2017-10-28 Sat

#3016. なぜ -ed の付け方と -(e)s の付け方が綴字において異なるのか? [suffix][spelling][sobokunagimon][3sp][plural]

 動詞の過去(分詞)の接尾辞 {-ed} と,動詞の3単現あるいは名詞の複数の接尾辞 {-(e)s} とでは,綴字において付け方が異なる.およそ平行的に振る舞うかのように見えて,いろいろと細かな違いがある.Carney (18--19) が共時的な観点から,この問題に迫っているので,引用しよう.

. . . The past tense and participle morpheme {-ed} in regular verbs (ignoring forms such as spelt, spent, dreamt) has a constant <-ed> spelling in spite of the phonemic variation /ɪd/ (waited), /d/ (warned) and /t/ (watched).
   There is very similar allomorphic variation in the noun plural and 3rd person present tense of the verb with its variants /ɪz/ (watches), /z/ (warns) and /s/ (waits). The two sets of phonetic variants are often cited together as equivalent examples of morphemic spelling. If we look closely at the details, however we find in fact that they are dealt with rather differently in the writing system (table 5).

Table 5 English plural and past tense inflections
 {-ed} ending{-(e)s} ending
1/-ɪd/ matted/-ɪz/ masses
2/-ɪd/ mated/-ɪz/ maces
3/-t/ hopped/-s/ (No *hoppes)
4/-t/ hoped/-s/ hops, hopes
5/-d/ planned/-z/ (No *plannes)
6/-d/ planed/-z/ plans, planes
7/-d/ hurried/-z/ hurries
8/-d/ radioed/-z/ radios
9/-d/ vetoed/-z/ vetoes, or vetos


   Table 5 gives examples of each suffix in its three phonemic variants. The words provided as contexts include a preceding long vowel followed by a single consonant, a preceding short vowel followed by a single consonant, and the spelling variation found after <o>. The past tense has a constant <ed> spelling across all these contexts which is only varied by merging with a final <-e> in the long vowel words (e.g. hope -- hoped). The marking of the long vowels is also done indirectly by using <C>-doubling to mark a previous short vowel --- absence of doubling marks the long vowel. This is not done in the noun plural suffix, so there are no equivalents in rows 3 and 5 to <hopped> and <planned>, that is *<hoppes> and *<plannes>. Nor is there a variant spelling *<vetod> to spoil the uniformity of <-ed>. The <e> of <-oes> and <-ies> is best treated as a marker of the long vowel. Grammarians refer to the two inflections as the -s form and the -ed form and this is in accordance with the traditional spelling rule that one adds <-s> and <-ed> respectively to the base form.
   If we try to use a consistent <-ed> morphemic spelling in chopping up words into correspondences without any overlap, this lack of symmetry becomes apparent. In scribbles we have /əl/≡<le> and in scribbled we have /əl/≡<l>; in hopes we have <e>-marking of the vowel as /əʊ/≡<o..e>, /p/≡<p>, /s/≡<s>, but in hoped we have /əʊ/≡<o>, /p/≡<p>, /t/≡<ed>, while the long vowel is marked by absence of <C>-doubling. In a process description, and indeed for any human speller, this is catered for by 'dovetailing' so that <hope>+<ed> becomes <hoped>, <eight>+<ty> becomes <eighty>, etc.


 Carney は,綴字の原理は "a constant spelling for a morpheme" と "the varying pronunciation of the morpheme in different contexts" の間のバランスの上に成り立つものであり,それが個々の綴字(規則)のなかで複雑に配分されていることを示唆している.その配分の違いが,{-ed} と {-s} にも現われていると考えられる.しかし,なぜそうなのかについては,通時的な観点も含めてさらに調べる必要がある.

 ・ Carney, Edward. A Survey of English Spelling. Abingdon: Routledge, 1994.

Referrer (Inside): [2019-05-22-1] [2017-10-31-1]

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