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2021-03-09 Tue

#4334. 婉曲語法 (euphemism) についての書誌 [euphemism][bibliography][semantics][lexicology][taboo][slang][swearing][sociolinguistics][thesaurus][terminology][hel_education]

 英語の語彙や意味の問題として,婉曲語法 (euphemism) は学生にも常に人気のあるテーマである.隣接領域として taboo, swearing, slang のテーマとも関わり,社会言語学寄りの語彙の問題として広く興味を引くもののようだ.
 そもそも euphemism とは何か.まずは Cruse の用語辞典より解説を与えよう (57--58) .

euphemism An expression that refers to something that people hesitate to mention lest it cause offence, but which lessens the offensiveness by referring indirectly in some way. The most common topics for which we use euphemisms are sexual activity and sex organs, and bodily functions such as defecation and urination, but euphemisms can also be found in reference to death, aspects of religion and money. The main strategies of indirectness are metonymy, generalisation, metaphor and phonological deformation.

   Sex:
   intercourse   go to bed with (metonymy), do it (generalisation)
   penis   His member was clearly visible (generalisation)
   Bodily function:
   defecate   go to the toilet (metonymy), use the toilet (generalisation)
   Death:
   die   pass away (metaphor), He's no longer with us (generalisation)
   Religion:
   God   gosh, golly (phonological deformation)
   Jesus   gee whiz (phonological deformation)
   Hell   heck (phonological deformation)


 この種の問題に関心をもったら,まずは本ブログより「#469. euphemism の作り方」 ([2010-08-09-1]),「#470. toilet の豊富な婉曲表現」 ([2010-08-10-1]),「#992. 強意語と「限界効用逓減の法則」」 ([2012-01-14-1]) を始めとして (euphemism) の記事群,それから taboo の記事群にも広く目を通してもらいたい.
 その後,以下の概説書の該当部分に当たるとよい.

 ・ Williams, Joseph M. Origins of the English Language: A Social and Linguistic History. New York: Free P, 1975. pp. 198--203.
 ・ Hughes, G. A History of English Words. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000. pp. 43--49.
 ・ Brinton, Laurel J. and Leslie K. Arnovick. The English Language: A Linguistic History. Oxford: OUP, 2006. pp. 80--81.

 書籍レベルとしては,Bussmann (157) と McArthur (387) の参考文献リストより,以下を掲げる.

 ・ Allan, K. and K. Burridge. Euphemism and Dysphemism: Language Used as a Shield and Weapon. New York: OUP, 1991.
 ・ Ayto, J. Euphemisms: Over 3,000 Ways to Avoid Being Rude or Giving Offence. London: 1993.
 ・ Enright, D. J., ed. Fair of Speech: The Uses of Euphemism. Oxford: OUP, 1985.
 ・ Holder, R. W. A Dictionary of American and British Euphemisms: The Language of Evasion, Hypocrisy, Prudery and Deceit. Rev. ed. London: 1989. Bath: Bath UP, 1985.
 ・ Lawrence, J. Unmentionable and Other Euphemisms. London: 1973.
 ・ Rawson, Hugh. A Dictionary of Euphemisms & Other Doubletalk. New York: Crown, 1981.

 具体的な語の調査にあたっては,もちろん OED,各種の類義語辞典 (thesaurus),Room の語の意味変化の辞典などをおおいに活用してもらいたい.

 ・ Cruse, Alan. A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2006.
 ・ Bussmann, Hadumod. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trans. and ed. Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzizi. London: Routledge, 1996.
 ・ McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: OUP, 1992.
 ・ Room, Adrian, ed. NTC's Dictionary of Changes in Meanings. Lincolnwood: NTC, 1991.

Referrer (Inside): [2021-05-30-1]

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