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2018-04-21 Sat

#3281. Hopper and Traugott による文法化の定義と本質 [grammaticalisation][terminology][language_change]

 Hopper and Traugott による文法化 (grammaticalisation) の定義および捉え方を紹介しておきたい.文法化というとき,それは言語変化のあるパターンを指すこともあれば,そのような言語変化を研究する枠組みのことを指すこともある.まずは,Hopper and Traugott (231) より,その辺りの定義から.

. . . we have considered grammaticalization as (i) a research framework for studying the relationships between lexical, constructional, and grammatical material in language, whether diachronically or synchronically, whether in particular languages or cross-linguistically, and (ii) a term referring to the change whereby lexical items and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions.


 (ii) の意味での文法化について,Hopper and Traugott (231) は,その本質は話し手と聞き手の間における意味の交渉であるとみている.文法化は,このようにコミュニケーションの基本的なポイントに立脚しているがゆえに,語用論的な観点や認知言語学的な観点も含み込むことになり,射程が広いフレームワークということになるのだろう.

We have argued that grammaticalization can be thought of as the result of the continual negotiation of meaning that speakers and hearers engage in in the context of discourse production and perception. The potential for grammaticalization lies in speakers attempting to be maximally informative, and in hearers attempting to be maximally cooperative, depending on the needs of the particular situation. Negotiating meaning may involve innovation, specifically, pragmatic, semantic, and ultimately grammatical enrichment. This means that grammaticalization is conceptualized as a type of change not limited to early child language acquisition or to perception (as is assumed in some models of language change), but due also to adult acquisition and to production.


 この射程の広さが,文法化研究の魅力の1つといってよい.

 ・ Hopper, Paul J. and Elizabeth Closs Traugott. Grammaticalization. 2nd ed. Cambridge: CUP, 2003.

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