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2010-09-01 Wed

#492. 近代英語期の強変化動詞過去形の揺れ [emode][verb][conjugation][variation][corpus][ppceme]

 近代英語期には,動詞の過去形や過去分詞形に数々の異形態があったことが知られている.特に母音の変化 ( ablaut, or vowel gradation ) によって過去形,過去分詞形を作った古英語の強変化動詞に由来する動詞は,-ed への規則化の傾向とも相俟って変異の種類が多かった.
 現代英語でも過去形や過去分詞形に変異のある動詞はないわけではない.例えば bid -- bid / bade / bad -- bid / bidden, prove -- proved -- proved / proven, show -- showed -- shown / showed, sow -- sowed / sown -- sown / sowed などがある.しかし,近代英語期の異形態間の揺れは現代英語の比ではない.18世紀の著名な規範文法家 Robert Lowth (1710-87) ですら揺れを許容しているほどだから,それだけ収拾がつかなかったということだろう ( Nevalainen, pp. 93--94 ) .
 今回はこの問題に関して,[2010-03-03-1]で紹介した PPCEME ( Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, second edition ) により,主要な動詞(とその派生・複合動詞)の過去形について異形態をざっと検索してみた.単に異綴りと考えられるものもあるが,明らかに語幹母音の音価の異なるものもあり,揺れの激しさが分かるだろう.カッコ内は頻度.

awake : awaked (1), awoke (3)
bear : bar (6), bare (133), barest (2), beare (1), bore (24)
begin : be-gane (12), be-gayne (1), began (281), began'st (1), begane (13), begann (1), beganne (27), begannyst (1), begayn (1), begayne (1), begon (1), begun (10)
break : brak (6), brake (60), brakest (2), break (2), broake (7), brok (4), broke (49), brokest (1)
come : bacame (1), becam (5), became (79), become (1), cam (475), came (2170), camest (11), camst (4), com (27), come (55), comst (1), ouercame (4), ouercome (2), over-cam (1), overcame (2), overcome (1)
drink : drancke (3), dranckt (1), drank (19), dranke (21), dronke (3), drunk (1), drunke (2)
eat : ate (15), eat (11), eate (12), ete (2)
fall : befel (1), befell (6), fel (15), fele (1), fell (306), felle (4), ffell (1)
find : fande (4), ffond (1), ffonde (1), ffound (1), find (1), fond (2), fonde (2), found (344), founde (63)
get : begat (67), begate (60), begot (3), begott (2), forgat (3), forgate (2), forgot (8), forgote (1), forgott (2), gat (10), gate (15), gatt (4), gatte (1), got (101), gote (23), gott (23)
give : forgaue (2), gaue (261), gauest (9), gave (364), gavest (12), gayff (4), gayffe (2), geve (1), misgaue (1)
help : help'd (2), help't (1), helped (5), helpt (1), holp (1), holpe (1)
know : knew (419), knewe (88), knewest (3), knewyst (1), know (1), knowe (1), knowethe (1), knue (1), knwe (1)
ring : rang'd (1), rong (1), rung (1), runge (1)
run : ran (77), rane (7), rann (3), ranne (38), run (12), rune (1), runn (1)
see : saw (627), saw (1), sawe (237), sawest (14), sawiste (1), see (5)
sing : sang (7), sange (5), song (11), songe (3), sung (13)
sink : sanke (1), sunke (1)
speak : bespake (2), spak (2), spake (318), spoak (1), spoake (8), spock (1), spoke (61), spokest (2)
spring : sprang (1), sprange (5), spronge (1), sprung (3), sprunge (1)
swear : sware (55), swoare (1), swore (56)
take : betoke (1), betook (4), betooke (4), mistook (1), mistooke (2), ouer-tooke (1), ouertoke (2), ouertooke (3), overtook (2), overtooke (2), take (1), taked (3), tok (2), toke (333), tokened (1), tokest (2), took (296), tooke (333), tooke (1), undertook (8), undertooke (2), vnd=er=tooke (1), vndertooke (2)
write : wrat (1), wrate (7), wret (32), wrett (49), writ (19), write (2), writt (8), writte (1), wrot (21), wrote (106), wrote (1), wrott (7), wrotte (3), wryt (1), wryte (1), wrytt (2)


 近代英語期の強変化動詞の過去形,過去分詞形の揺れは様々に研究されているが,Nevalainen の References から以下の2件の研究を見つけたのでメモしておく.

 ・ Nevalainen, Terttu. An Introduction to Early Modern English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2006.
 ・ Gustafsson, Larisa O. Preterite and Past Participle Forms in English, 1680--1790. Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 120. Uppsala: Uppsala U, 2002.
 ・ Lass, Roger. "Proliferation and Option-Cutting: The Strong Verb in the Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries." Towards a Standard English, 1600--1800. Ed. Dieter Stein and Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 81--113.

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