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2014-10-25 Sat

#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc]

 概説書の目次というのは,その分野の全体像を見渡すのにうってつけである.英語史概説書も例外ではない.例えば,「#1301. Gramley の英語史概説書のコンパニオンサイト」 ([2012-11-18-1]) で紹介した The History of English: An Introduction の目次を取り上げよう.Gramley の英語史概説書コンパニオンサイトこちらのページより目次が得られるので,以下そこから目次の章立ての部分のみを抜き出したものを転載する.

Chapter 1: The origins of English (before 450)
   1.1. The origins of human language
   1.2. Language change
   1.3. Changes in Germanic before the invasions of Britain
   1.4. The world of the Germanic peoples
   1.5. The Germanic migrations
   1.6. Summary
Chapter 2: Old English: early Germanic Britain (450--700)
   2.1. The first peoples
   2.2. The Germanic incursions
   2.3. Introduction to Old English
   2.4. The Christianization of England
   2.5. Literature in the early Old English period
   2.6. Summary
Chapter 3: Old English: the Viking invasions and their consequences (700--1066/1100)
   3.1. The Viking invasions
   3.2. Linguistic influence of Old Norse
   3.3. Creolization
   3.4. Alfred's reforms and the West Saxon standard
   3.5. Monastic reform, linguistic developments, and literary genres
   3.6. Summary
Chapter 4: Middle English: The non-standard period (1066/1100--1350)
   4.1. Dynastic conflict and the Norman Conquest
   4.2. Linguistic features of Middle English in the non-standard period
   4.3. French influence on Middle English and the question of creolization
   4.4. English literature
   4.5. Dialectal diversity in ME
   4.6. Summary
Chapter 5: Middle English: the emergence of Standard English (1350--1500)
   5.1. Political and social turmoil and demographic developments
   5.2. The expansion of domains
   5.3. Chancery English (Chancery Standard)
   5.4. Literature
   5.5. Variation
   5.6 Summary
Chapter 6: The Early Modern English Period (1500--1700)
   6.1. The Early Modern English Period
   6.2. Early Modern English
   6.3. Regulation and codification
   6.4. Religious and scientific prose and belles lettres
   6.5. Variation: South and North
   6.6. Summary
Chapter 7: The spread of English (since the late sixteenth century)
   7.1. Social-historical background
   7.2. Language policy
   7.3. The emergence of General English (GenE)
   7.4. Transplantation
   7.5. Linguistic correlates of European expansionism
   7.6. Summary
Chapter 8: English in Great Britain and Ireland (since 1700)
   8.1. Social and historical developments in Britain and Ireland
   8.2. England and Wales
   8.3. Scotland
   8.4. Ireland
   8.5. Urban varieties
   8.6. Summary
Chapter 9: English pidgins, English creoles, and English (since the early seventeenth century)
   9.1. European expansion and the slave trade
   9.2. Language contact
   9.3. Pidgins
   9.4. Creoles
   9.5. Theories of origins
   9.6 Summary
Chapter 10: English in North America (since the early seventeenth century)
   10.1. The beginnings of English in North America
   10.2. Colonial English
   10.3. Development of North American English after American independence
   10.4. Ethnic variety within AmE
   10.5. Summary
Chapter 11: English in the ENL communities of the Southern Hemisphere (since 1788)
   11.1. Social-historical background
   11.2. Southern Hemisphere English: grammar
   11.3. Southern Hemisphere English: pronunciation
   11.4. Southern Hemisphere English: vocabulary and pragmatics
   11.5. Regional and ethnic variation
   11.6. Summary
Chapter 12: English in the ESL countries of Africa and Asia (since 1795)
   12.1. English as a Second Language
   12.2. Language planning and policy
   12.3. Linguistic features of ESL
   12.4. Substrate influence
   12.5. Identitarian function of language
   12.6. Summary
Chapter 13: Global English (since 1945)
   13.1. The beginnings of Global English
   13.2. Media dominance
   13.3. Features of medialized language
   13.4. ENL, ESL, and ELF/EFL
   13.5. The identitarian role of the multiplicity of Englishes
   13.6. Summary


 近年の英語史概説書におよそ共有される特徴ではあるが,近現代の英語を巡る社会言語学的な記述や論考が目立つ.Gramley では,英語の諸変種(ピジン語やクレオール語を含め)について多くの紙幅が割かれており,とりわけ12--13章においてその内容が充実しているように思われる.また,ENL, ESL, ELF/EFL の区別にかかわらず英語が "identitarian role" を担っているという指摘が繰り返されている辺り,21世紀的な英語観が感じられる.社会言語学的な色彩の濃い英語史概説書として,Fennell と並んでお勧めしたい.

 ・ Gramley, Stephan. The History of English: An Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge, 2012.
 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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