hellog〜英語史ブログ     前の日     次の日     最新     2014-02     検索ページへ     ランダム表示    

hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2014-02-17

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

2014-02-17 Mon

#1757. synaesthesia とロマン派詩人 (1) [synaesthesia][semantic_change][collocation][rhetoric][literature]

 synaesthesia共感覚)の話題は,多くの人々の関心を引きつける.私の大学のゼミでも,毎年のように卒論の題材に選ぶ学生が現われる.そもそも synaesthesia とは何か.まずは,Bussmann の言語学用語辞典よる説明を引用しよう.

synesthesia [Grk synaísthēsis 'joint perception']
The association of stimuli or the sense (smell, sight, hearing, taste, and touch). The stimulation of one of these senses simultaneously triggers the stimulation of one of the other senses, resulting in phenomena such as hearing colors or seeing sounds. In language, synesthesia is reflected in expressions in which one element is used in a metaphorical sense. Thus, a voice can be 'soft' (sense of touch), 'warm' (sensation of heat), or 'dark' (sense of sight).


 つまり,ある感覚を表わすのに,別の感覚に属する表現を用いてすることである.通言語的に広く観察される現象であり,昨日の議論「#1756. 意味変化の法則,らしきもの?」 ([2014-02-16-1]) の流れでいえば,意味に関する傾向というよりは法則と呼ぶべきものに近い.日本語でも,「柔らかい色」(触覚と視覚),「甘い香り」(味覚と嗅覚),「黄色い声援」(視覚と聴覚)など多数ある.
 英語でも上記の引用中の日常的な例のほか,より文学的な言語からは "I see a voice: now will I to the chink, To spy an I can hear my Thisby's face" (Sh., Mids. N. D. 5:1:194--95), "As they smelt music" (Sh., Tempest 4:1:178), "eyes which mutter thickly" (E. E. Cummings), "And taste the music of that vision pale" (Keats) などの表現がいくらでも見つかる.
 文学史的にいえば,予想されることだが,synaesthesia はロマン派の詩人が好んだ修辞法である.ロマン派の出現と synaesthesia は,無縁ではないどころか,堅く結びついている.Ullmann (272--73) は,18世紀後半の社会史と文学史の展開に,英語における本格的な共感覚表現使用の起源をみている.

In the latter half of the eighteenth century, a number of contributory factors prepared the ground for the romantic vogue of synaesthesia: occult influences (Swedenborg), theories about language origin (Herder), efforts to delimit the various arts (Lessing, Erasmus Darwin), Rousseau's use of sense-metaphors, and various other currents of pre-romantic literature.
   All these threads were gathered up by the Romantic Movement. There were also some factors peculiar to that generation: the cult of exoticism and the use of drugs like hashish and opium; the part played by certain synaesthetic temperaments, such as E. T. A. Hoffmann; the tightening of social contacts between writers, artists and musicians; and in a more general way, the new code of aesthetics, with its search for novel and imaginative effects, expressiveness, and evocatory power. For the first time in the history of literature synaesthetic metaphor became a fully-fledged poetic device, and its stylistic potentialities were widely exploited. The most frequent settings in which it automatically presented itself were descriptive passages with strong suggestive power, where synaesthesia, like Leibniz's monads, provided several angles from which the same sensation could be viewed; situations where the organic unity of perceptual states had to be stressed; and last but not least, vague, dreamy, or even uncanny and hallucinatory moods where the semi-pathological implications of intersensorial transfer found a congenial expression. So strong was the interest in these 'correspondences', 'harmonies', and 'transpositions', that entire poems were devoted to synaesthetic themes. (273)


 この引用は,意味論の記述であるとともに文学史上の批評ともなっており,実に興味深い.Ullmann が取り上げた作家群には,Byron, Keats, William Morris, Wilde, Dowson, Phillips, Lord Alfred Douglas, Arthur Symons; Longfellow; Leconte de Lisle, Théphile Gautier; and the Hungarian romantic poet Vörösmarty などがいた.
 では,ロマン派の詩人は具体的にどのような種類の synaesthesia 表現を用いたのだろうか.これについては,明日の記事で.

 ・ Bussmann, Hadumod. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trans. and ed. Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzizi. London: Routledge, 1996.
 ・ Ullmann, Stephen. The Principles of Semantics. 2nd ed. Glasgow: Jackson, 1957.

Referrer (Inside): [2014-02-19-1] [2014-02-18-1]

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

2019 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2018 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2017 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2016 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2015 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2014 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2013 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2012 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2011 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2010 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2009 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

最終更新時間: 2018-12-25 05:04

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow