hellog〜英語史ブログ     前の日     次の日     最新     2016-05     検索ページへ     ランダム表示    

hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2016-05-10

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

2016-05-10 Tue

#2570. 英語史における主たる統語変化 [syntax][grammaticalisation][language_change]

 英語史では様々な統語変化が生じてきた.研究上,特に注目されてきた統語変化が,Fischer and Wurff (111--13) の "The main syntactic changes" と題する表にまとめられている.統語変化の全体像をつかむべく,そして研究課題探しの参照用に,表を再現しておきたい.

Changes in:Old EnglishMiddle English Modern English
case form and function:   
   genitivegenitive case only, various functionsgenitive case for subjective/poss. of-phrase elsewheresame
determiners:   
   systemarticles present in embryo-form, system developingarticles used for presentational and referential functionsalso in use in predicative and generic contexts
   double det.presentrareabsent
quantifiers:   
   position ofrelatively freemore restrictedfairly fixed
adjectives:   
   positionboth pre- and postnominalmainly prenominalprenominal with some lexical exceptions
   form/functionstrong/weak forms, functionally distinctremnants of strong/weak forms; not functionalone form only
   as headfully operativereduced; introduction of onerestricted to generic reference/idiomatic
   ?stacking' of adjectival or relative clauserelative: se, se þe, þe, zero subject rel.introd.: þæt, wh-relative (exc. who), zero obj. rel.who relative introduced
   adj. + to-inf.only active infinitivesactive and passive inf.mainly active inf.
aspect-system:   
   use of perfectembryonicmore frequent; in competition with 'past'perfect and 'past' grammaticalised in different functions
   form of perfectbe/have (past part. sometimes declined)be/have; have becomes more frequentmainly have
   use and form of progressivebe + -ende; no clear functionbe + -ing, infrequent, more aspectualfrequent, grammaticalising
tense system:   
   'present'used for present tense, progressive, futureused for present tense and progr.; (future tense develops)becomes restricted to 'timeless' and 'reporting' uses
   'past'used for past tense, (plu)perfect, past progr.still used also for past progr. and perfect; new: modal pastrestricted in function by grammaticalisation of perfect and progr.
mood system:   
   expressed bysubjunctive, modal verbs (epistemic advbs)mainly modal verbs (+ develop. quasi-modals); modal past tensesame + development of new modal expressions
   category of core modalsverbs (with exception features)verbs (with exception features)auxiliaries (with verbal features)
voice system:   
   passive formbeon/weorðan + (infl.) past part.be + uninfl. past partsame; new GET passive
   indirect pass.absentdeveloping(fully) present
   prep. pass.absentdeveloping(fully) present
   pass. infin.only after modal verbsafter full verbs, with some nouns and adject.same
negative system:ne + verb (other negator)(ne) + verb + not; not + verbAux + not + verb; (verb + not)
interrog. system:inversion: VSinversion: VSAux SV
DO as operatorabsentinfrequent, not grammaticalisedbecoming fully grammaticalised
subject:   
   position filledsome pro-drop possible; dummy subjects not compulsorypro-drop rare; dummy subjects become the normpro-drop highly marked stylistically; dummy subj. obligat.
   clausesabsentthat-clauses and infinitival clausesnew: for NP to V clauses
   subjectless/impersonal constructionscommonsubject position becomes obligatorily filledextinct (some lexicalised expressions)
   position with respect to Vboth S(. . .)V and VSS(. . .)V; VS becomes restricted to yes/no quest.only S(adv)V; VS > Aux SV
object:   
   clausesmainly finite þæt-cl., also zero/to-infinitivestark increase in infinitival cl.introduction of a.c.i. and for NP to V cl.
   position with respect to VVO and OVVO; OV becomes restrictedVO everywhere
   position IO-DOboth orders; pronominal IO-DO preferrednominal IO-DO the norm, introduction of DO for, to IOIO/DO with full NPs; pronominal DO/IO predominates
clitic pronouns:syntactic cliticsclitics disappearingclitics absent
adverbs:   
   positionfairly freemore restrictedfurther restricted
   clausesuse of correlatives + different word ordersdistinct conjunctions; word order mainly SVOall word order SVO (exc. some conditional clauses)
phrasal verbs:position of particle: both pre- and postverbalgreat increase; position: postverbalsame
preposition strandingonly with pronouns (incl R-pronouns: þær etc.) and relative þeno longer with pronouns, but new with prep. passives, interrog. and other relative clausesno longer after R-pronouns (there etc.) except in fixed expressions


 ・ Fischer, Olga and Wim van der Wurff. "Syntax." Chapter 3 of A History of the English Language. Ed. Richard Hogg and David Denison. Cambridge: CUP, 2006. 109--98.

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

2019 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2018 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2017 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2016 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2015 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2014 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2013 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2012 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2011 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2010 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
2009 : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

最終更新時間: 2019-11-26 21:27

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow