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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2018-03-17

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2018-03-17 Sat

#3246. 制限コードと精密コード [sociolinguistics][terminology][context][style]

 標題は,現在でも社会言語学においてたまに出会う用語・概念である.制限コード (restricted code) と洗練コード (elaborated code) は,対立する2つの言語使用形態を表わす.制限コードは,比較的少ない語彙や単純な文法構造を用いた,文脈依存性の高い言葉遣いである.一方,精密コードは,豊富な語彙と洗練された文法構造を用いた,文脈依存性の低い言葉遣いである.極端ではあるが,子供の用いるインフォーマルな話し言葉と,大人の用いるフォーマルな書き言葉の対立をイメージすればよい.
 この用語がある種の問題を帯びたのは,用語の導入者であるイギリスの社会言語学者 Basil Bernstein が,異なる階級の子供たちの言葉遣いを区別するのにそれを用いたからである.中流階級の子供は両コードを使えるが,労働者階級の子供は制限コードしか使えないという点を巡って,それが各階級の言語習慣の問題なのか,あるいは知性そのものの問題なのかという議論が持ち上がり,教育上の論争に発展した.現在では知性とは関係ないとされているものの,用語のインパクトは強く,いまなお健在である.
 Crystal の用語集より,"restricted" と "elaborated" の説明をみておこう.

restricted (adj.) A term used by British sociologist Basil Bernstein (1924--2000) to refer to one of two varieties (or codes) of language use, introduced as part of a general theory of the nature of social systems and social roles, the other being elaborated. Restricted code was thought to be used in relatively informal situations, stressing the speaker's membership of a group, was very reliant on context for its meaningfulness (e.g. there would be several shared expectations and assumptions between the speakers), and lacked stylistic range. Linguistically, it was highly predictable, with a relatively high proportion of such features as pronouns, tag questions, and use of gestures and intonation to convey meaning. Elaborated code, by contrast, was thought to lack these features. The correlation of restricted code with certain types of social-class background, and its role in educational settings (e.g. whether children used to this code will succeed in schools where elaborated code is the norm --- and what should be done in such cases), brought this theory considerable publicity and controversy, and the distinction has since been reinterpreted in various ways.


elaborated (adj.) A term used by the sociologist Basil Bernstein (1924--2000) to refer to one of two varieties (or codes) of language use, introduced as part of a general theory of the nature of social systems and social rules, the other being restricted. Elaborated code was said to be used in relatively formal, educated situations; not to be reliant for its meaningfulness on extralinguistic context (such as gestures or shared beliefs); and to permit speakers to be individually creative in their expression, and to use a range of linguistic alternatives. It was said to be characterized linguistically by a relatively high proportion of such features as subordinate clauses, adjectives, the pronoun I and passives. Restricted code, by contrast, was said to lack these features. The correlation of elaborated code with certain types of social-class background, and its role in educational settings (e.g. whether children used to a restricted code will succeed in schools where elaborated code is the norm --- and what should be done in such cases), brought this theory considerable publicity and controversy, and the distinction has since been reinterpreted in various ways.


 英語史上,制限コードに関連して取り上げられ得る話題は,「#3043. 後期近代英語期の識字率」 ([2017-08-26-1]) で見たような識字率の問題だろう.両コードの区別を念頭に,書き言葉というメディアと識字教育の歴史を再検討してみるとおもしろいかもしれない.

 ・ Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008. 295--96.

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