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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2013-04-05

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2013-04-05 Fri

#1439. 聖書に由来する表現集 [bible][idiom]

 1611年に刊行された『欽定訳聖書』(The Authorised Version あるいは The King James Version (Bible) [KJV])は近代英語の性質を決定したと言われることもあり,現代英語の表現に大きな影響を与えた.初期近代英語の所産としては,Shakespeare と並んで英語史上の意義が大きい.
 2010年に出版された Crystal の著書では,KJV に由来する表現の多くが現代英語に残っており,各種のキャッチコピーやダジャレに利用されている状況が,延々と解説される.著書の巻末に,聖書由来として取り上げられた現代英語に残る表現の索引がつけられていた (pp. 303--11) .これを表現集としてまとめておけば何かに役に立つだろうと思い,リストを作った.本当は聖書の章節への参照がつけられればよかったのだが,それには時間がかかりそうだったので,表現のみを記す.ただし,データファイルでは Crystal の著書で言及されているページへの参照をつけているので,より詳しく調べたいときにはご参照を.
 索引行としては671行あるが,索引の作り方ゆえに重複も多く,表現そのもので数えれば388個ほど(これにも類似表現が含まれるので,厳密にいえばもっと少ない).このリストをアルファベット順に下に掲げる.

a time to ..., Adam and Eve, add fuel to the fire, against us ... with us, all things are pure, all things to all men, Alpha and Omega, apple of [one's] eye, Armageddon, as [one] reaps sow, as [one] sows reap, Babel, baptism of/by fire, bear [one's] burden, bear [one's] burden/cross, bear/take up [one's] cross, begat, behold the man, better to give than receive, better to give than to receive, blessed are ..., blind leading the blind, blood upon [one's] head, bondage, born again, bottomless pit, bread, bread alone, bread from heaven, bread of life, bread upon the waters, brotherly love, build a house on sand, burning bush, camel through the eye of a needle, can anything good come out of, can't take it with you, cast bread upon the waters, cast pearls before swine, cast the first stone, cast thy bread upon waters, cast/throw the first stone, charity covers a multitude of sins, cheerful giver, coals of fire, coals of fire on [one's] head, coat of many colours, come to pass, covet, cradle to the grave, crumbs from the table, David and Goliath, day of my distress, death where is thy sting, deep waters, den of thieves, die by the sword, divide the sheep from the goats, do thou likewise, do unto others, double-edged sword, dreamer of dreams, drink and be merry, drop in the ocean, drop of/in a bucket, dust thou art, east of Eden, eat drink and be merry, eat [one's] words, eating [one's] words, every creeping thing, every thing there is a season, eye for an eye, eye hath not seen, eye of a needle, faith can move mountains, fall flat on [one's] face, fall from grace, false witness, fatted calf, feet of clay, few are chosen, fight the good fight, filthy lucre, fire and brimstone, first fruits, five loaves and two fishes, flat on [one's] face, flesh and blood, flesh is weak, fleshpots, flies in amber, fly in the ointment, forbidden fruit, forty days, forty days and forty nights, forty nights, fruitful and multiply, fruits, fuel to the fire, garment, get thee behind me Satan, giants in the earth, giants in the earth in those days, gift blindeth the wise, gird [one's] loins, give thanks unto the Lord, give up the ghost, gnashing of teeth, go and do thou likewise, go down to the sea in ships, go the extra mile, go the second/extra mile, God and mammon, God forbid, God save the king, golden calf, good and faithful servant, good cheer, good come out of Nazareth, good Samaritan, good shepherd, grave where is thy victory, graven image, great whore, greater love, greatest in the kingdom, greatest/least in the kingdom, hair, hair of [one's] head, hairy garment, hands, harden [one's] heart, harvest is great, heal thyself, heal thyself physician, heap coals of fire on [one's] head, heap mischiefs, heaven and earth shall pass away, hide light under a bushel, holier than thou, honour, horribly afraid, house of bondage, how are the mighty fallen, I am that I am, in our image, in the beginning was the Word, in the twinkling of an eye, itching ears, Jesus wept, Job's comforter, Job's/miserable comforter, jot or tittle, judge not, kick against the pricks, kingdom divided, kingdom divided against itself, know for a certainty, know not what they do, know that my redeemer liveth, labourers are few, Lamb of God, land of Nod, last shall be first, laugh [one] to scorn, law unto [oneself], leading the blind, least in my father's house, left and right hand, left hand knows what the right hand does, leopard changing his spots, lesser light, let my people go, let not the sun go down on your wrath, let there be light, let thy words be few, let us now praise famous men, let [one's] light shine, lick the dust, light, light in the firmament, lights in the firmament, lion's whelp, lions' den, live and move and have our being, live/die by the sword, loaves and fishes, Lord is my shepherd, lost sheep, love thy neighbour as thyself, making many books, making many books there is no end, man after [one's] own heart, manna, many are called, many are called but few are chosen, many mansions, meek shall inherit the earth, milk and honey, millstone, millstone around neck, miserable comforters, molten calf, money answers all things, money is the root of all evil, mote, mote in [one's] eye, mouth(s) of babes, much study is a weariness of the flesh, multitude of sins, my brother's keeper, my kingdom is not of this world, my name is Legion, name of the Lord thy God, new wine in old bottles, no man can serve two masters, no peace for the wicked, no respecter of persons, no room at the inn, no small stir, nothing new under the sun, oint, old as ..., old as the hills, old serpent, old wine in new bottles, old wives' tales, on [one's] own head be it, out of the depths, out of the mouth(s) of babes, passeth all understanding, patience of a saint, patience of Job, peace, pearl of great price, peculiar treasure, Philistines, pillar of fire, pillar of salt, play the fool, play the mad man, play the men, powers that be, prick, pricks in [one's] eyes, pride goes before a fall, prophet not honoured, prophet not honoured in his own country, publish it not in the streets, publish it not in the streets of ..., put words in [one's] mouth, race is not to the swift, rain, reap the whirlwind, render unto Caesar, rest, resurrection and the life, right and left hand, riotous living, rivers of Babylon, rod for [one's] back, rod of iron, root and branch, root of the matter, sabbath was made for man, Saint (as proper name), saith the Lord vengeance is mine, salt of the earth, Satan behind me, scales fall from [one's] eyes, scapegoat, see eye to eye, see through a glass darkly, seeds fall by the wayside, seek and ye shall find, separate the sheep from the goats, serve two masters, set teeth on edge, set [one's] house in order, shake the dust from [one's] feet, sheep to the slaughter, sheep's clothing, shibboleth, shining light, shout it from the housetops, shout it from the rooftops, sick of the palsy, sign, signs and wonders, signs of the times, skin of my teeth, sour grapes, sow the wind, spare the rod, speak in tongues, speak Lord for thy servant heareth, spirit is willing, spirit is willing but the flesh is weak, stiff-necked, still as a stone, still small voice, sting, stony ground, strength and song, strength to strength, stumbling-block, suffer fools gladly, suffer little children, sufficient unto the day, sufficient unto the day is the evil, sweet savours, swords into plowshares, tables of stone, take root, take the name of the Lord thy God in vain, take up [one's] cross, take [one's] name in vain, tell it not in ..., ten commandments, than thou, thief in the night, thirty pieces of silver, thorn in [one's] flesh, thorn in [one's] flesh/side, thorn in [one's] side, thou shalt not, threescore years and ten, throw the first stone, thy servant heareth, times and/or seasons, to every thing there is a season, tomorrow we shall die, tomorrow will take care of itself, touch the hem of [one's] garment, treasure(s) in heaven, tree of knowledge, turn the other cheek, turn the world upside down, twinkling of an eye, two (heads) are better than one, two by two, two heads are better than one, two mites, two or three are gathered together, two-edged sword, unclean unclean, unto the pure all things are pure, unto us ... is born, unto us a child is born, unto us is born, upon this rock, valley of the shadow of death, vanity of vanities, vile bodies, virgin shall be with child, voice crying in the wilderness, wages of sin is death, wandering stars, wash [one's] hands, way of all flesh, way truth and life, weariness of the flesh, weeping and wailing, weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth, what God hath joined together, what hath God wrought, what I have written, what I have written I have written, what shall it profit a man, wheels within wheels, where is thy victory grave, where two or three are gathered together, whips and scorpions, white as snow, whited sepulchres, widow's mite, wine maketh merry, wineskins, wish I'd never been born, wit's end, with us ... against us, woe is me, Word was made flesh, words shall not pass away, writing on the wall, ye of little faith, yoke is easy


 ・ Crystal, David. BEGAT: The King James Bible and the English Language. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010.

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