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2022-01-27 Thu

#4658. 20世紀の言語学の3段階 [linguistics][history_of_linguistics]

 The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia の序章 (xxv) に,20世紀以降,この約100年間の欧米における言語学の発展の図式が記されていた.3つの段階に分けられている.その区分を示そう.

Phase 1: The emergence of modern linguistics (1911--33)
1911 Saussure's third (final) lecture series in Geneva
       Boas's 'Introduction' to Handbook of American Indian Languages
1912 Daniel Jones becomes Head of Department of Phonetics, University of London
1913 Death of Saussure (1857--1913)
1914 Bloomfield's Introduction to the Study of Language
1916 Saussure's Cours de linguistique géenerale
1921 Sapir's Language
1924 Linguistic Society of America founded
1925 First volume of the journal, Language
1928 First International Congress of Linguists (The Hague)
1932 First International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Amsterdam)
1933 Bloomfield's Language

Phrase 2: A time of transition (c. 19025--60)
1923 Malinowski's 'The problem of meaning in primitive languages'
1926 Linguistic Circle of Prague founded
1938 Death of Trubezkoy (1890--1938)
1939 Trubetzkoy's Grndzüge der Phonologie
       Death of Sapir (1884--1939)
1941 Death of Whorf (1897--1941)
1942 Death of Boas (1858--1942)
1944 J.R. Firth becomes Professor of General Linguistics, University of London
1949 Death of Bloomfield (1887--1949)
1951 Harris's Methods in Structural Linguistics
1953 Weinreich's Languages in Contact
1956 Jacobson and Halle's Fundamentals of Language
1957 Chomsky's Syntactic Structures

Phrase 3: The expansion and diversification of linguistics (since 1960)
1961 Halliday's 'Categories of the theory of grammar'
1963 Greenberg's Universals of Language
1964 Chomsky's Aspects of the Theory of syntax
1966 Labov's The Social Stratification of English in New York City
1973 Halliday's Explorations in the Functions of Language
1981 Chomsky's Lectures on Government and Binding
1985 Halliday's Introduction to functional Grammar
1986 Chomsky's Knowledge of Language
1995 Chomsky's The Minimalist Program


 第1期は,ソシュールの影響力のもとに,欧米が曲がりなりにも歩調を揃えながら共時的・構造主義的言語学を確立させた時代.第2期は,欧米の間で異なる方向に言語学が発展していった時代.第3期は,言語学の観点が多様化を遂げた時代と要約できるだろう.

 ・ Malmkjær, Kirsten, ed. The Routledge Linguistics Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2010.

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