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2016-06-03 Fri

#2594. Baugh and Cable の英語史からの設問 --- Chapters 5 to 8 [hel_education][terminology]

 「#2588. Baugh and Cable の英語史からの設問 --- Chapters 1 to 4」 ([2016-05-28-1]) に続いて,5--8章の設問を提示する.Baugh and Cable の復習のお供にどうぞ.

[ Chapter 5: The Norman Conquest and the Subjection of English, 1066--1200 ]

1. Explain why the following people are important in historical discussions of the English language:
   Edward the Confessor
   William, duke of Normandy
   Henry I
   Henry II
2. How would the English language probably have been different if the Norman Conquest had never occurred?
3. From what settlers does Normandy derive its name? When did they come to France?
4. Why did William consider that he had claim on the English throne?
5. What was the decisive battle between the Normans and the English? How did the Normans win it?
6. When was William crowned king of England? How long did it take him to complete his conquest of England and gain complete recognition? In what parts of the country did he face rebellions?
7. What happened to Englishmen in positions of church and state under William's rule?
8. For how long after the Norman Conquest did French remain the principal language of the upper classes in England?
9. How did William divide his lands at his death?
10. What was the extent of the lands ruled by Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine?
11. What was generally the attitude of the French kings and upper classes to the English language?
12. What does the literature written under the patronage of the English court indicate about French culture and language in England during this period?
13. How complete was the fusion or the French and English peoples in England?
14. In general, which parts of the population spoke English, and which French?
15. To what extent did the upper classes learn English? What can one infer concerning Henry II's knowledge of English?
16. How far down in the social scale was knowledge of French at all general?

[ Chapter 6: The Reestablishment of English, 1200--1500 ]

1. Explain why the following are important in historical discussions of the English language:
   King John
   Philip, king of France
   Henry III
   The Hundred Years' War
   The Black Death
   The Peasants' Revolt
   Statute of Pleading
   Geoffrey Chaucer
   John Wycliffe
2. In what year did England lose Normandy? What events brought about the loss?
3. What effect did the loss of Normandy have upon the nobility of France and England and consequently upon the English language?
4. Despite the loss of Normandy, what circumstances encouraged the French to continue coming to England during the long reign of Henry III (1216--1272)?
5. The arrival of foreigners during Henry III's reign undoubtedly delayed the spread of English among the upper classes. In what ways did these events actually benefit the English language?
6. What was the status of French throughout Europe in the thirteenth century?
7. What explains the fact that the borrowing of French words begins to assume large proportions during the second half of the thirteenth century, as the importance of the French language in England is declining?
8. What general conclusions can one draw about the position of English at the end of the thirteenth century?
9. What can one conclude about the use of French in the church and the universities by the fourteenth century?
10. What kind of French was spoken in England, and how was it regarded?
11. In what way did the Hundred Years' War probably contribute to the decline of French in England?
12. According to Baugh and Cable, the Black Death reduced the numbers of the lower classes disproportionately and yet indirectly increased the importance of the language that they spoke. Why was this so?
13. What specifically can one say about changing conditions for the middle class in England during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? What effect did these changes have upon the English language?
14. In what year was Parliament first opened with a speech in English?
15. What statute marks the official recognition of the English language in England?
16. When did English begin to be used in the schools?
17. What was the status of the French language in England by the end of the fifteenth century?
18. About when did English become generally adopted for the records of towns and the central government?
19. What does English literature between 1150 and 1350 tell us about the changing fortunes of the English language?
20. What do the literary accomplishments of the period between 1350 and 1400 imply about the status of English?

[ Chapter 7: Middle English ]

1. Define:
   Central French
   Hybrid forms
   Latin influence of the Third Period
   Aureate diction
   Standard English
2. What phonetic changes brought about the leveling of inflectional endings in Middle English?
3. What accounts for the -e in Modern English stone, the Old English form of which was stān in the nominative and accusative singular?
4. Generally what happened to inflectional endings of nouns in Middle English?
5. What two methods of indicating the plural of nouns remained common in early Middle English?
6. Which form of the adjective became the form for all cases by the close of the Middle English period?
7. What happened to the demonstratives , sēo, þæt and þēs, þēos, þis in Middle English?
8. Why were the losses not so great in the personal pronouns? What distinction did the personal pronouns lose?
9. What is the origin of the th- forms of the personal pronoun in the third person plural?
10. What were the principal changes in the verb during the Middle English period?
11. Name five strong verbs that were becoming weak during the thirteenth century.
12. Name five strong post participles that have remained in use after the verb became weak.
13. How many of the Old English strong verbs remain in the language today?
14. What effect did the decay of inflections have upon grammatical gender in Middle English?
15. To what extent did the Norman Conquest affect the grammar of English?
16. In the borrowing of French words into English, how is the period before 1250 distinguished from the period after?
17. Into what general classes do borrowings of French vocabulary fall?
18. What accounts for the difference in pronunciation between words introduced into English after the Norman Conquest and the corresponding words in Modem French?
19. Why are the French words borrowed during the fifteenth century of a bookish quality?
20. What is the period of the greatest borrowing of French words? Altogether about how many French words were adopted during the Middle English period?
21. What principle is illustrated by the pairs ox/beef, sheep/mutton, swine/pork, and calf/veal?
22. What generally happened to the Old English prefixes and suffixes in Middle English?
23. Despite the changes in the English language brought about by the Norman Conquest, in what ways was the language still English?
24. What was the main source of Latin borrowings during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries?
25. In which Middle English writers is aureate diction most evident?
26. What tendency may be observed in the following sets of synonyms: rise--mount--ascend, ask--question--interrogate, goodness--virtue--probity?
27. What kind of contact did the English have with speakers of Flemish, Dutch, and Low German during the late Middle Ages?
28. What are the five principal dialects of Middle English?
29. Which dialect of Middle English became the basis for Standard English? What causes contributed to the establishment of this dialect?
30. Why did the speech of London have special importance during the late Middle Ages?

[ Chapter 8: The Renaissance, 1500--1650 ]

1. Explain why the following people are important in historical discussions of the English language:
   Richard Mulcaster
   John Hart
   William Bullokar
   Sir John Cheke
   Thomas Wilson
   Sir Thomas Elyot
   Sir Thomas More
   Edmund Spenser
   Robert Cawdrey
   Nathaniel Bailey
2. Define:
   Inkhorn terms
   Oversea language
   Latin influence of the Fourth Period
   Great Vowel Shift
   Group possessive
3. What new forces began to affect the English language in the Modern English period? Why may it be said that these forces were both radical and conservative?
4. What problems did the modern European languages face in the sixteenth century?
5. Why did English have to be defended as language of scholarship? How did the scholarly recognition of English come about?
6. Who were among the defenders of borrowing foreign words?
7. What was the general attitude toward inkhorn terms by the end of Elizabeth's reign?
8. What were some of the ways in which Latin words changed their form as they entered the English language?
9. Why were some words in Renaissance English rejected while others survived?
10. What classes of strange words did sixteenth-century purists object to?
11. When was the first English dictionary published? What was the main purpose of English dictionaries throughout the seventeenth century?
12. From the discussions in Baugh and Cable §177 and below, summarize the principal features in which Shakespeare's pronunciation differs from your own.
13. Why is vowel length important in discussing sound changes in the history of the English language?
14. Why is the Great Vowel Shift responsible for the anomalous use of the vowel symbols in English spelling?
15. How does the spelling of unstressed syllables in English fail to represent accurately the pronunciation?
16. What nouns with the old weak plural in -n can be found in Shakespeare?
17. Why do Modern English nouns have an apostrophe in the possessive?
18. When did the group possessive become common in England?
19. How did Shakespeare's usage in adjectives differ from current usage?
20. What distinctions, at different periods, were made by the forms thou, thy, thee? When did the forms fall out of general use?
21. How consistently were the nominative ye and the objective you distinguished during the Renaissance?
22. What is the origin of the form its?
23. When did who begin to be used as relative pronoun? What are the sources of the form?
24. What forms for the the third person singular of the verb does one find in Shakespeare? What happened to these forms during the seventeenth century?
25. How would cultivated speakers of Elizabethan times have regarded Shakespeare's use of the double negative in "Thou hast spoken no word all this time---nor understood none neither"?

 ・ Cable, Thomas. A Companion to History of the English Language. 3rd ed. London: Routledge, 2002.

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