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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2014-11-25

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2014-11-25 Tue

#2038. Fennell の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc][flash]

 「#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-10-25-1]) に続き,英語史概説書の目次を挙げて,英語史 (a history of English) を数分で俯瞰するというシリーズの第2弾.Fennell (2001) は,本ブログでもたびたび参照してきた英語史概説書であり,歴史社会言語学的なアプローチに特徴がある.ある書評を読むと,"A Sociolinguistic Approach" という副題の割には,とりわけ古い時代における社会言語学的な扱いは弱く,体系的でもないという.一方で,最後の3章,後期近代英語以降の各章では社会言語学的な洞察が光っており,読むに値するという評価がある.私もおよそこの評価に同意する.新しい洞察がどれだけあるかといえば必ずしも多くはないかもしれないが,近代以前の時代についても社会言語学的に興味深い話題をいくつか提供しており,社会言語学的に英語史を眺めるとどうなるかという試みとしてはよいのではないかと好意的に見ている.社会言語学寄りとはいえ伝統的な構造言語学的な記述も多いので,その他の定評のある英語史概説書を1, 2冊読んだ上で読むのに適するのではないか.ノードの開閉もできる Flash 版ももどうぞ.

1 Introduction
   1.1 The Time Periods of English
   1.2 Language Change
   1.3 Sources of Information on Language Change
   1.4 Linguistic Preliminaries
   1.5 The Sounds of English, and Symbols Used to Describe Them
      1.5.1 Consonants
      1.5.2 Vowels
         1.5.2.1 Monophthongs
         1.5.2.2 Diphthongs
   1.6 Structure of the Book
2 The Pre-history of English
   Timeline: The Indo-European Period
   2.1 The Indo-European Languages and Linguistic Relatedness
      2.1.1 The Beginnings
      2.1.2 The Development of Historical Linguistics
      2.1.3 Genetic Relatedness
   2.2 Linguistic Developments: The Indo-European Language Family
      2.2.1 Family-Tree Relationships
      2.2.2 The Indo-European Family
         2.2.2.1 Indo-Iranian
         2.2.2.2 Armenian
         2.2.2.3 Albanian
         2.2.2.4 Balto-Slavonic
         2.2.2.5 Hellenic
         2.2.2.6 Italic
         2.2.2.7 Celtic
         2.2.2.8 Germanic
   2.3 From Indo-European to Germanic
         2.3.1 Prosody
         2.3.2 The Consonant System: Sound Shifts
            2.3.2.1 Grimm's Law
            2.3.2.2 Verner's Law
            2.3.2.3 The Second Consonant Shift
         2.3.3 The Vowel System
         2.3.4 Morphology
         2.3.5 Syntax
         2.3.6 Lexicon
         2.3.7 Semantics
         2.3.8 Indo-European/Germanic Texts
         2.3.9 Neogrammarians, Structuralists and Contemporary Linguistic Models
   2.4 Typological Classification
      2.4.1 Universals
         2.4.1.1 Syntactic Universals
      2.4.2 Morphological Typology
   2.5 Sociolinguistic Focus. The Indo-European Tribes and the Spread of Language. Language Contact and Language Change. Archaeological Linguistics
      2.5.1 Language Contact
      2.5.2 Archaeological Linguistics
   2.6 Conclusion
3 Old English
   Timeline: The Old English Period
   3.1 Social and Political History
      3.1.1 Britain before the English
      3.1.2 The Anglo-Saxon Invasions
      3.1.3 Anglo-Saxon Influence
      3.1.4 Scandinavian Influence
   3.2 Linguistic Developments: The Sounds, Structure and Typology of Old English
      3.2.1 The Structure of Old English
         3.2.1.1 OE Consonants
         3.2.1.2 Vowels: from Germanic to Old English
         3.2.1.3 Old English Gender
         3.2.1.4 Inflection in Old English
         3.2.1.5 Old English Syntax
         3.2.1.6 Old English Vocabulary
   3.3 Linguistic and Literary Achievements
      3.3.1 Texts
         3.3.1.1 Prose
         3.3.1.2 Poetry
   3.4 The Dialects of Old English
   3.5 Sociolinguistic Focus
      3.5.1 Language Contact
         3.5.1.1 Latin and Celtic
         3.5.1.2 The Scandinavians
4 Middle English
   Timeline: The Middle English Period
   4.1 Social and Political History
      4.1.1 Political History: The Norman Conquest to Edward I
      4.1.2 Social History
         4.1.2.1 The Establishment of Towns and Burghs and the Beginnings of Social Stratification
   4.2 Linguistic Developments: Middle English Sounds and Structure, with Particular Emphasis on the Breakdown of the Inflectional System and its Linguistic Typological Implications
      4.2.1 Major Changes in the Sound System
         4.2.1.1 The Consonants
         4.2.1.2 Consonant Changes from Old to Middle English
         4.2.1.3 Vowels in Stressed Syllables
         4.2.1.4 Vowels in Unstressed Syllables
         4.2.1.5 Lengthening and Shortening
         4.2.1.6 Summary Table of Vowel Changes from Old to Middle English
         4.2.1.7 The Formation of Middle English Diphthongs
      4.2.2 Major Morphological Changes from Old to Middle English
         4.2.2.1 Loss of Inflections
         4.2.2.2 Other Changes in the Morphological System
         4.2.2.3 Verbs
      4.2.3 Middle English Syntax
         4.2.3.1 Word Order
      4.2.4 The Lexicon: Loan Words from French
         4.2.4.1 Numbers and Parts of the Body
         4.2.4.2 Two French Sources
   4.3 Middle English Dialects
      4.3.1 Linguistic and Literary Achievements
         4.3.1.1 Middle English Literature
      4.3.2 Language
      4.3.3 Genre
   4.4 Sociolinguistic Focus: Social Stratification, Multilingualism and Dialect Variation. Language Contact: The Myth of Middle English Creolization
      4.4.1 English Re-established
         4.4.1.1 Language and the Rise of the Middle Class
      4.4.2 The Development of Standard English
         4.4.2.1 The Evolution of ME 'Standard' English
      4.4.3 Middle English Creolization: Myth?
         4.4.3.1 Definitions
         4.4.3.2 Pidgins and Creoles in England?
   4.5 Conclusion
5 Early Modern English
   Timeline: The Early Modern English Period
   5.1 Social and Political History
      5.1.1 Historical and Political Background
         5.1.1.1 Internal Instability and colonial Expansion
   5.2 Linguistic Developments: The Variable Character of Early Modern English
      5.2.1 Phonology
         5.2.1.1 Consonants
         5.2.1.2 Vowels
         5.2.1.3 The Great Vowel Shift
      5.2.2 Morphology
         5.2.2.1 Nouns
         5.2.2.2 Pronouns
         5.2.2.3 Adjectives and Adverbs
         5.2.2.4 Verbs
         5.2.2.5 The Spread of Northern Forms
      5.2.3 Syntax
         5.2.3.1 Periphrastic do
         5.2.3.2 Progressive Verb Forms
         5.2.3.3 Passives
      5.2.4 Sample Text
      5.2.5 Vocabulary
      5.2.6 The Anxious State of English: The Search for Authority
         5.2.6.1 Dictionaries and the Question of Linguistic Authority: Swift's and Johnson's View of Language
   5.3 Linguistic and Literary Achievement
   5.4 Sociolinguistic Focus
      5.4.1 Variation in Early Modern English
      5.4.2 Standardization
         5.4.2.1 The Printing Press
         5.4.2.2 The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation
         5.4.2.3 English Established
      5.4.3 The Great Vowel Shift
         5.4.3.1 Phonological Change
      5.4.4 Case Study: Power and Solidarity Relations in Early Modern English
   5.5 Conclusion
6 Present-Day English
   Timeline: Present-Day English
   Introduction
   6.1 Social and Political History
      6.1.1 The Age of Revolutions, Wars and Imperialism
      6.1.2 Urbanization, Industrialization and Social Stratification
   6.2 Linguistic Developments
      6.2.1 Morphology and Syntax
         6.2.1.1 Morphology
         6.2.1.2 Syntax
      6.2.2 The Lexicon
         6.2.2.1 Colonialism, Contact and Borrowings
         6.2.2.2 Neologisms
         6.2.2.3 Illustrative Texts
   6.3 Modern English Dialects
      6.3.1 Traditional Dialects
      6.3.2 Modern Dialects
      6.3.3 Received Pronunciation (RP): The Social Background
         6.3.3.1 Characteristics of RP
      6.3.4 RP, Estuary English and 'the Queen's English'
   6.4 Sociolinguistic Focus: English in Scotland, Ireland and Wales --- Multilingualism in Britain
      6.4.1 English in the British Isles
         6.4.1.1 English in Scotland
         6.4.1.2 English in Wales
         6.4.1.3 English in Ireland
      6.4.2 Immigrant Varieties of English in Britain
         6.4.2.1 Immigration to Britain in the PDE Period
         6.4.2.2 Colonial Immigration and Language
7 English in the United States
   Timeline: America in the Modern Period
   7.1 Social and Political History
      7.1.1 Settlement and Language
      7.1.2 Settlement by Region
         7.1.2.1 The Original Thirteen Colonies
         7.1.2.2 The Middle West
         7.1.2.3 The South and West
   7.2 The Development of American English
      7.2.1 The Strength and maintenance of Dialect Boundaries
      7.2.2 How, Why and When American English Began to Diverge from British English
         7.2.2.1 Physical Separation
         7.2.2.2 The Different Physical Conditions Encountered by the Settlers
         7.2.2.3 Contact with Immigrant Non-Native Speakers of English
         7.2.2.4 Developing Political Differences and the Growing American Sense of National Identity
   7.3 Language Variation in the United States
      7.3.1 Uniformity and Diversity in Early American English
      7.3.2 Regional Dialect Divisions in American English
         7.3.2.1 The Lexicon
         7.3.2.2 Phonology: Consonants
         7.3.2.3 Phonology: Vowels
      7.3.3 Social and Ethnic Dialects
         7.3.3.1 Social Class and Language Change
         7.3.3.2 Ethnicity
         7.3.3.3 African-American Vernacular English
         7.3.3.4 Traditional Dialects and the Resistance to Change
8 World-Wide English
   Timeline: World-Wide English
   8.1 Social and Political History: The Spread of English across the Globe
      8.1.1 British Colonialism
         8.1.1.1 Canada
         8.1.1.2 The Caribbean
         8.1.1.3 Australia
         8.1.1.4 New Zealand
         8.1.1.5 South Africa
         8.1.1.6 South Asia
         8.1.1.7 Former Colonial Africa: West Africa
         8.1.1.8 East Africa
         8.1.1.9 South-East Asia and South Pacific
      8.1.2 An Overview of the Use of English throughout the World
   8.2 English as a Global language
      8.2.1 The Industrial Revolution
      8.2.2 American Economic Superiority and Political Leadership
      8.2.3 American Technological Domination
      8.2.4 The Boom in English language Teaching
      8.2.5 The Need for a Global Language
      8.2.6 Structural Considerations
      8.2.7 Global and at the Same Time Local
   8.3 English as a Killer Language
      8.3.1 Language Death
      8.3.2 Language and Communication Technology
   8.4 The Future of English


 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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