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hellog〜英語史ブログ / 2023-07-25

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2023-07-25 Tue

#5202. 他動性 (transitivity) とは何か? [transitivity][termonology][verb][mood][grammar][syntax][construction]

 『新英語学辞典』 (1267) によると,他動性 (transitivity) は Halliday の文法理論における用語で,法 (mood) と主題 (theme) とともに Halliday 文法における3つの大きな体系網を構成する.他動性とは,他動詞 (transitive verb) と自動詞 (intransitive verb) の区別に対応する概念というよりも,むしろ節に参与する要素間の「関与性」ととらえるほうが適切だろう.
 例えば Sir Chirstopher Wren built this bridge. といった典型的な SVO の文においては,行為者,過程,目標の3者が互いに関与し合っており,他動的であるといわれる.しかし,これは単純で典型的な例にすぎない.いくつの参与者がどのように関与し合っているかのパターンは様々であり,細分化していくと最終的には一つひとつの個別具体的な過程を区別しなければならなくなるだろう.この細分化の尺度を delicacy と呼んでいる.他動性は,したがって,動詞がいくつの項を取り得るかという問題や,伝統文法における「文型」の話題とも関連してくる.
 英文法に引きつけて考えるために,Crystal の言語学辞典より transitivity を引いて,例とともに理解していこう.

transitivity (n.) A category used in the grammatical analysis of clause/sentence constructions, with particular reference to the verb's relationship to dependent elements of structure. The main members of this category are transitive (tr, trans), referring to a verb which can take a direct object (as in he saw the dog), and intransitive (intr, intrans), where it cannot (as in *he arrived a ball). Many verbs can have both a transitive and an intransitive use (cf. we went a mile v. we went), and in some languages this distinction is marked morphologically. More complex relationships between a verb and the elements dependent upon it are usually classified separately. For example, verbs which take two objects are sometimes called ditransitive (as opposed to monotransitive), as in she gave me a pencil. There are also several uses of verbs which are marginal to one or other of these categories, as in pseudo-intranstive constructions (e.g. the eggs are selling well, where an agent is assumed --- 'someone is selling the eggs' --- unlike normal intransitive constructions, which do not have an agent transform: we went, but not *someone went us). Some grammarians also talk about (in)transitive prepositions. For example, with is a transitive preposition, as it must always be accompanied by a noun phrase complement (object), and along can be transitive or intransitive: cf. She arrived with a dog v. *She arrived with and She was walking along the river v. She was walking along.


 他動性については,今後も考えていきたい.

 ・ 大塚 高信,中島 文雄(監修) 『新英語学辞典』 研究社,1982年.
 ・ Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008. 295--96.

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