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2016-09-06 Tue

#2689. Saeed の意味論概説書の目次 [toc][semantics]

 先日の「#2683. Huang の語用論概説書の目次」 ([2016-08-31-1]) に引き続き,今回は,Saeed の意味論のテキストの目次を挙げる.定評のある意味論の概説書で,共時的意味論の広い分野を網羅しており,理論的な基礎を学ぶのに適している.ただし,通時的な意味論の話題はほとんど扱っていない.

Part I Preliminaries

1 Semantics in Linguistics
   1.1 Introduction
   1.2 Semantics and Semiotics
   1.3 Three Challenges in Doing Semantics
   1.4 Meeting the Challenges
   1.5 Semantics in a Model of Grammar
   1.6 Some Important Assumptions
   1.7 Summary
2 Meaning, Thought and Reality
   2.1 Introduction
   2.2 Reference
   2.3 Reference as a Theory of Meaning
   2.4 Mental Representations
   2.5 Words, Concepts and Thinking
   2.6 Summary

Part II Semantic Description

3 Word Meaning
   3.1 Introduction
   3.2 Words and Grammatical Categories
   3.3 Words and Lexical Items
   3.4 Problems with Pinning Down Word Meaning
   3.5 Lexical Relations
   3.6 Derivational Relations
   3.7 Lexical Universals
   3.8 Summary
4 Sentence Relations and Truth
   4.1 Introduction
   4.2 Logic and Truth
   4.3 Necessary Truth, A Priori Truth and Analyticity
   4.4 Entailment
   4.5 Presupposition
   4.6 Summary
5 Sentence Semantics 1: Situations
   5.1 Introduction
   5.2 Classifying Situations
   5.3 Modality and Evidentiality
   5.4 Summary
6 Sentence Semantics 2: Participants
   6.1 Introduction: Classifying Participants
   6.2 Thematic Roles
   6.3 Grammatical Relations and Thematic Roles
   6.4 Verbs and Thematic Role Grids
   6.5 Problems with Thematic Roles
   6.6 The Motivation for Identifying Thematic Roles
   6.7 Voice
   6.8 Classifiers and Noun Classes
   6.9 Summary
7 Context and Inference
   7.1 Introduction
   7.2 Deixis
   7.3 Reference and Context
   7.4 Knowledge as Context
   7.5 Information Structure
   7.6 Inference
   7.7 Conversational Implicature
   7.8 Summary
8 Functions of Language: Speech as Action
   8.1 Introduction
   8.2 Austin's Speech Act Theory
   8.3 Categorizing Speech Acts
   8.4 Indirect Speech Acts
   8.5 Sentence Types
   8.6 Summary

Part III Theoretical Approaches

9 Meaning Components
   9.1 Introduction
   9.2 Lexical Relations in CA
   9.3 Katz's Semantic Theory
   9.4 Grammatical Rules and Semantic Components
   9.5 Components and Conflation Patterns
   9.6 Jackendoff's Conceptual Structure
   9.7 Pustejovsky's Generative Lexicon
   9.8 Problems with Components of Meaning
   9.9 Summary
10 Formal Semantics
   10.1 Introduction
   10.2 Model-Theoretical Semantics
   10.3 Translating English into a Logical Metalanguage
   10.4 The Semantics of the Logical Metalanguage
   10.5 Checking the Truth-Value of Sentences
   10.6 Word Meaning: Meaning Postulates
   10.7 Natural Language Quantifiers and Higher Order Logic
   10.8 Intensionality
   10.9 Dynamic Approaches to Discourse
   10.10 Summary
11 Cognitive Semantics
   11.1 Introduction
   11.2 Metaphor
   11.3 Metonymy
   11.4 Image Schemas
   11.5 Polysemy
   11.6 Mental Spaces
   11.7 Langacker's Cognitive Grammar
   11.8 Summary

 ・ Saeed, John I. Semantics. 3rd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

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2016-08-31 Wed

#2683. Huang の語用論概説書の目次 [toc][pragmatics]

 概説書の目次シリーズ (toc) に,語用論のテキストとして定評のある Huang を加えたい.主として英語の語用論を扱っているものの,諸言語への言及も多く,丁寧で読みやすいテキストである.以下の目次では省いているが,各章末に "Key concepts", "Exercises and essay questions", "Further readings" が付されており,役立つことを付け加えておく.

1. Introduction
   1.1. What is pragmatics?
      1.1.1. A definition
      1.1.2. A brief history of pragmatics
      1.1.3. Two main schools of thought in pragmatics: Anglo-American versus European Continental
   1.2. Why pragmatics?
      1.2.1. Linguistic underdeterminacy
      1.2.2. Simplification of semantics and syntax
   1.3 Some basic notions in semantics and pragmatics
      1.3.1 Sentence, utterance, proposition
      1.3.2. Context
      1.3.3. Truth value, truth condition, entailment
   1.4 Organization of the book

Part I Central topics in pragmatics
2. Implicature
   2.1. Classical Gricean theory of conversational implicature
      2.1.1. The co-operative principle and the maxims of conversation
      2.1.2. Relationship between the speaker and the maxims
      2.1.3. Conversational implicatureO versus conversational implicatureF
      2.1.4. Generalized versus particularized conversational implicature
      2.1.5. Properties of conversational implicature
   2.2. Two neo-Gricean pragmatic theories of conversational implicature
      2.2.1. The Hornian system
      2.2.2. The Levinsonian system
   2.3. Conventional implicature
      2.3.1. What is conventional implicature?
      2.3.2. Properties of conventional implicature
   2.4. Summary
3. Presupposition
   3.1. What is presupposition?
   3.2. Properties of presupposition
      3.2.1. Constancy under negation
      3.2.2. Defeasibility
      3.2.3. The projection problem
   3.3. Analyses
      3.3.1. The filtering-satisfaction analysis
      3.3.2. The cancellation analysis
      3.3.3. The accommodation analysis
   3.4. Summary
4. Speech acts
   4.1. Performatives versus constatives
      4.1.1. The performative/constative dichotomy
      4.1.2. The performative hypothesis
   4.2. Austin's felicity conditions on performatives
   4.3. Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts
   4.4. Searle's felicity conditions on speech acts
   4.5. Searle's typology of speech acts
   4.6. Indirect speech acts
      4.6.1. What is an indirect speech act?
      4.6.2. How is an indirect speech act analysed?
      4.6.3. Why is an indirect speech act used? Some remarks on politeness
   4.7. Speech acts and culture
      4.7.1. Cross-cultural variation
      4.7.2. Interlanguage variation
   4.8. Summary
5. Deixis
   5.1. Preliminaries
      5.1.1. Deictic versus non-deictic expression
      5.1.2. Gestural versus symbolic use of a deictic expression
      5.1.3. Deictic centre and deictic projection
   5.2. Basic categories of deixis
      5.2.1 Person deixis
      5.2.2. Time deixis
      5.2.3. Space deixis
   5.3. Other categories of deixis
      5.3.1. Social deixis
      5.3.2. Discourse deixis
   5.4. Summary

Part II Pragmatics and its interfaces
6. Pragmatics and cognition: relevance theory
   6.1. Relevance
      6.1.1. The cognitive principle of relevance
      6.1.2. The communicative principle of relevance
   6.2. Explicature, implicature, and conceptual versus procedural meaning
      6.2.1. Grice: what is said versus what is implicated
      6.2.2. Explicature
      6.2.3. Implicature
      6.2.4. Conceptual versus procedural meaning
   6.3. From Fodorian 'central process' to submodule of 'theory of mind'
      6.3.1. Fodorian theory of cognitive modularity
      6.3.2. Sperber and Wilson's earlier position: pragmatics as Fodorian 'central process'
      6.3.3. Sperber and Wilson's current position: pragmatics as submodule of 'theory of mind'
   6.4. Relevance theory compared with classical/neo-Gricean theory
   6.5. Summary
7. Pragmatics and semantics
   7.1. Reductionism versus complementarism
   7.2. Drawing the semantics-pragmatics distinction
      7.2.1. Truth-conditional versus non-truth-conditional meaning
      7.2.2. Conventional versus non-conventional meaning
      7.2.3. Context independence versus context dependence
   7.3. Pragmatic intrusion into what is said and the semantics-pragmatics interface
      7.3.1. Grice: what is said versus what is implicated revisited
      7.3.2. Relevance theorists: explicature
      7.3.3. Recanati: the pragmatically enriched said
      7.3.4. Bach: conversational implicature
      7.3.5. Can explicature/the pragmatically enriched said/implicature be distinguished from implicature?
      7.3.6. Levinson: conversational implicature
      7.3.7. The five analyses compared
   7.4. Summary
8. Pragmatics and syntax
   8.1. Chomsky's views about language and linguistics
   8.2. Chomsky's binding theory
   8.3. Problems for Chomsky's binding theory
      8.3.1. Binding condition A
      8.3.2. Binding condition B
      8.3.3. Complementarity between anaphors and pronominals
      8.3.4. Binding condition C
   8.4. A revised neo-Gricean pragmatic theory of anaphora
      8.4.1. The general pattern of anaphora
      8.4.2. A revised neo-Gricean pragmatic apparatus for anaphora
      8.4.3. The binding patterns
      8.4.4. Beyond the binding patterns
      8.4.5. Logophoricity and emphaticness/contrastiveness
   8.5. Theoretical implications
   8.6. Summary

 ・ Huang, Yan. Pragmatics. Oxford: OUP, 2007.

Referrer (Inside): [2016-09-06-1]

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2016-04-15 Fri

#2545. Wardhaugh の社会言語学概説書の目次 [toc][sociolinguistics][hel_education]

 目次を掲げるシリーズ (toc) に,社会言語学を追加したい.今回は,Wardhaugh の社会言語学概説書より.各章末に "Further Reading" の節がついているが,以下では軒並み省略した.うまくできている目次というのは全体が体系的で,章節名もそのままキーワードとなっているので,暗記学習に適している.

   1 Introduction
      Knowledge of Language
      Language and Society
      Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language
      Methodological Concerns

Part I Languages and Communities

   2 Languages, Dialects, and Varieties
      Language or Dialect?
      Regional Dialects
      Social Dialects
      Styles, Registers, and Beliefs

   3 Pidgins and Creoles
      Lingua Francas
      Distribution and Characteristics
      From Pidgin to Creole and Beyond

   4 Codes
      Bilingualism and Multilingualism

   5 Speech Communities
      Intersecting Communities
      Networks and Repertoires

Part II Inherent Variety

   6 Language Variation
      Regional Variation
      The Linguistic Variable
      Social Variation
      Data Collection and Analysis

   7 Some Findings and Issues
      An Early Study
      New York City
      Norwich and Reading
      A Variety of Studies

   8 Change
      The Traditional View
      Some Changes in Progress
      The Process of Change

Part III Words at Work

   9 Words and Culture
      Taboo and Euphemism

   10 Ethnographies
      Varieties of Talk
      The Ethnography of Speaking

   11 Solidarity and Politeness
      Tu and Vous
      Address Terms

   12 Talk and Action
      Speech Acts

   13 Gender
      Possible Explanations

   14 Disadvantage
      Codes Again
      African American English
      Consequences for Education

   15 Planning
      A Variety of Situations
      Further Examples
      Winners and Losers

 ・ Wardhaugh, Ronald. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 6th ed. Malden: Blackwell, 2010.

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2016-02-16 Tue

#2486. 文字解読の歴史 [review][toc][writing][medium][history_of_linguistics][grammatology]

 「#2427. 未解読文字」 ([2015-12-19-1]) の記事で触れたように,未解読文字の解読にはロマンがある.解読成功者の解読プロセスを紹介する書は一級のミステリー小説といってよく,実際に数多く出版されている.多くの文字体系を扱っており読みやすいという点では,矢島(著)がおすすめである.その目次を挙げると,雰囲気をつかめるだろう.

 ・ ロゼッタ石を読む
 ・ 古代ペルシアの楔形文字
 ・ ベヒストゥン岩壁の刻文
 ・ 楔形文字で書かれた「ノアの方舟」
 ・ シュメール文明の再発見
 ・ 古代の大帝国ヒッタイトの文字
 ・ シナイ文字とアルファベットの起源
 ・ エトルリア語の謎
 ・ 東地中海の古代文字
 ・ クレタ=ミケーネ文字の発見
 ・ 線文字Bと建築家ヴェントリス
 ・ シベリアで見つかった古代トルコ文字
 ・ 甲骨文字と殷文明
 ・ カラホト遺跡の西夏文字
 ・ 古代インディオの諸文字
 ・ インダス文字とイースター文字
 ・ ファイストスの円盤と線文字A
 ・ ルーン文字とオガム文字
 ・ 梵字の起源とパスパ文字
 ・ 最古の文字はどこまでたどれるか
 ・ 古代文字はいかに解読されるか

 矢島 (234) は,最終章「古代文字はいかに解読されるか」で,現在までの世界の文字解読の歴史を4段階に分けている.

 (1) 手さぐりの時代(一八世紀以前)
 (2) ロマン主義の時代(一九世紀)
 (3) 宝さがしの時代(二〇世紀前半)
 (4) 科学的探究の時代(二〇世紀後半)

 よく特徴をとらえた時代区分である.文字解読がロマンを誘うのは,それが否応なく異国情緒と重なるからだろうが,(2) の「ロマン主義の時代」の背景には,「ヨーロッパ大国の東方への視線,端的にいえば植民地主義競争」 (239) があったことは疑いない.Jean-François Champollion (1790--1832) のロゼッタ石 (Rosetta stone) の解読には仏英の争いが関わっているし,楔形文字解読に貢献した Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (1810--95) も大英帝国の花形軍人だった.
 (3) の時代は,世界的に考古学的な大発見が相次いだことと関係する.クレタ島,ヒッタイト,バビロニア,エジプト,中央アジア,西夏,殷墟の発掘により,続々と新しい文字が発見されては解読の試みに付されていった.
 現代に続く (4) の時代は,前の時代のように個人の学者が我一番と解読に挑むというよりは,研究者集団が,統計技術やコンピュータを駆使して暗号を解くかのようにして未解読文字に向かう時代である.言語学,統計学,暗号解読の手法を用いながら調査・研究を進めていく世の中になった.もはや文字解読の「ロマン主義」の時代とは言えずとも,依然としてロマンそのものは残っているのである.

 ・ 矢島 文夫 『解読 古代文字』 筑摩書房,1999.

Referrer (Inside): [2018-11-26-1] [2016-09-16-1]

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2015-01-15 Thu

#2089. Baugh and Cable の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc]

 「#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-10-25-1]),「#2038. Fennell の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-11-25-1]),「#2050. Knowles の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-12-07-1]) に続き,英語史概説書の目次を抜粋するシリーズ.今回は,6版を重ねる英語史の古典的かつ現役の名著 Baugh and Cable の A History of the English Language より.私が学生のときに読んだのは古い版だったが,英語の読みやすさと引き込むような文体で英語史の魅力にとりつかれた.

1 English Present and Future
   1. The History of the English Language as a Cultural Subject
   2. Influences at Work on Language
   3. Growth and Decay
   4. The Importance of a Language
   5. The Importance of English
   6. The Future of the English Language: Demography
   7. External and Internal Aspects of English
   8. Cosmopolitan Vocabulary
   9. Inflectional Simplicity
   10. Natural Gender
2 The Indo-European Family of Languages
   11. Language Constantly Changing
   12. Dialectal Differentiation
   13. The Discovery of Sanskrit
   14. Grimm's Law
   15. The Indo-European Family
   16. Indian
   17. Iranian
   18. Armenian
   19. Hellenic
   20. Albanian
   21. Italic
   22. Balto-Slavic
   23. Germanic
   24. Celtic
   25. Twentieth-century Discoveries
   26. The Home of the Indo-Europeans
3 Old English
   27. The Languages in England before English
   28. The Romans in Britain
   29. The Roman Conquest
   30. Romanization of the Island
   31. The Latin Language in Britain
   32. The Germanic Conquest
   33. Anglo-Saxon Civilization
   34. The Names "England" and "English"
   35. The Origin and Position of English
   36. The Periods in the History of English
   37. The Dialects of Old English
   38. Old English Pronunciation
   39. Old English Vocabulary
   40. Old English Grammar
   41. The Noun
   42. Grammatical Gender
   43. The Adjective
   44. The Definite Article
   45. The Personal Pronoun
   46. The Verb
   47. The Language Illustrated
   48. The Resourcefulness of the Old English Vocabulary
   49. Self-explaining Compounds
   50. Prefixes and Suffixes
   51. Syntax and Style
   52. Old English Literature
4 Foreign Influences on Old English
   53. The Contact of English with Other Languages
   54. The Celtic Influence
   55. Celtic Place-Names and Other Loanwords
   56. Three Latin Influences on Old English
   57. Chronological Criteria
   58. Continental Borrowing (Latin Influence of the Zero Period)
   59. Latin through Celtic Transmission (Latin Influence of the First Period)
   60. Latin Influence of the Second Period: The Christianizing of Britain
   61. Effects of Christianity on English Civilization
   62. The Earlier Influence of Christianity on the Vocabulary
   63. The Benedictine Reform
   64. Influence of the Benedictine Reform on English
   65. The Application of Native Words to New Concepts
   66. The Extent of the Influence
   67. The Scandinavian Influence: The Viking Age
   68. The Scandinavian Invasions of England
   69. The Settlement of the Danes in England
   70. The Amalgamation of the Two Peoples
   71. The Relation of the Two Languages
   72. The Tests of Borrowed Words
   73. Scandinavian Place-names
   74. The Earliest Borrowing
   75. Scandinavian Loanwords and Their Character
   76. The Relation of Borrowed and Native Words
   77. Form Words
   78. Scandinavian Influence outside the Standard Speech
   79. Effect on Grammar and Syntax
   80. Period and Extent of the Influence
5 The Norman Conquest and the Subjection of English, 1066--1200
   81. The Norman Conquest
   82. The Origin of Normandy
   83. The Year 1066
   84. The Norman Settlement
   85. The Use of French by the Upper Class
   86. Circumstances Promoting the Continued Use of French
   87. The Attitude toward English
   88. French Literature at the English Court
   89. Fusion of the Two Peoples
   90. The Diffusion of French and English
   91. Knowledge of English among the Upper Class
   92. Knowledge of French among the Middle Class
6 The Reestablishment of English, 1200--1500
   93. Changing Conditions after 1200
   94. The Loss of Normandy
   95. Separation of the French and English Nobility
   96. French Reinforcements
   97. The Reaction against Foreigners and the Growth of National Feeling
   98. French Cultural Ascendancy in Europe
   99. English and French in the Thirteenth Century
   100. Attempts to Arrest the Decline of French
   101. Provincial Character of French in England
   102. The Hundred Years' War
   103. The Rise of the Middle Class
   104. General Adoption of English in the Fourteenth Century
   105. English in the Law Courts
   106. English in the Schools
   107. Increasing Ignorance of French in the Fifteenth Century
   108. French as a Language of Culture and Fashion
   109. The Use of English in Writing
   110. Middle English Literature
7 Middle English
   111. Middle English a Period of Great Change
   112. From Old to Middle English
   113. Decay of Inflectional Endings
   114. The Noun
   115. The Adjective
   116. The Pronoun
   117. The Verb
   118. Losses among the Strong Verbs
   119. Strong Verbs That Became Weak
   120. Survival of Strong Participles
   121. Surviving Strong Verbs
   122. Loss of Grammatical Gender
   123. Middle English Syntax
   124. French Influence on the Vocabulary
   125. Governmental and Administrative Words
   126. Ecclesiastical Words
   127. Law
   128. Army and Navy
   129. Fashion, Meals, and Social Life
   130. Art, Learning, Medicine
   131. Breadth of the French Influence
   132. Anglo-Norman and Central French
   133. Popular and Literary Borrowings
   134. The Period of Greatest Influence
   135. Assimilation
   136. Loss of Native Words
   137. Differentiation in Meaning
   138. Curtailment of OE Processes of Derivation
   139. Prefixes
   140. Suffixes
   141. Self-explaining Compounds
   142. The Language Still English
   143. Latin Borrowings in Middle English
   144. Aureate Terms
   145. Synonyms at Three Levels
   146. Words from the Low Countries
   147. Dialectal Diversity of Middle English
   148. The Middle English Dialects
   149. The Rise of Standard English
   150. The Importance of London English
   151. The Spread of the London Standard
   152. Complete Uniformity Still Unattained
8 The Renaissance, 1500--1650
   153. From Middle English to Modern
   154. The Great Vowel Shift
   155. Weakening of Unaccented Vowels
   156. Changing Conditions in the Modern Period
   157. Effect upon Grammar and Vocabulary
   158. The Problems of the Vernaculars
   159. The Struggle for Recognition
   160. The Problem of Orthography
   161. The Problem of Enrichment
   162. The Opposition to Inkhorn Terms
   163. The Defense of Borrowing
   164. Compromise
   165. Permanent Additions
   166. Adaptation
   167. Reintroductions and New Meanings
   168. Rejected Words
   169. Reinforcement through French
   170. Words from the Romance Languages
   171. The Method of Introducing New Words
   172. Enrichment from Native Sources
   173. Methods of Interpreting the New Words
   174. Dictionaries of Hard Words
   175. Nature and Extent of the Movement
   176. The Movement Illustrated in Shakespeare
   177. Shakespeare's Pronunciation
   178. Changes Shown through Corpus Linguistics
   179. Grammatical Features
   180. The Noun
   181. The Adjective
   182. The Pronoun
   183. The Verb
   184. Usage and Idiom
   185. General Characteristics of the Period
9 The Appeal to Authority, 1650--1800
   186. The Impact of the Seventeenth Century
   187. The Temper of the Eighteenth Century
   188. Its Reflection in the Attitude toward the Language
   189. "Ascertainment"
   190. The problem of "Refining" the language
   191. The Desire to "Fix" the Language
   192. The Example of Italy and France
   193. An English Academy
   194. Swift's Proposal, 1712
   195. Objection to an Academy
   196. Substitutes for an Academy
   197. Johnson's Dictionary
   198. The Eighteenth-century Grammarians and Rhetoricians
   199. The Aims of the Grammarians
   200. The Beginnings of Prescriptive Grammar
   201. Methods of Approach
   202. The Doctrine of Usage
   203. Results
   204. Weakness of the Early Grammarians
   205. Attempts to Reform the Vocabulary
   206. Objections to Foreign Borrowings
   207. The Expansion of the British Empire
   208. Some Effects of Expansion on the Language
   209. Development of Progressive Verb Forms
   210. The Progressive Passive
10 The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
   211. Influences Affecting the Language
   212. The Growth of Science
   213. Automobile, Film, Broadcasting, Computer
   214. The World Wars
   215. Language as a Mirror of Progress
   216. Sources of the New Words: Borrowings
   217. Self-explaining Compounds
   218. Compounds Formed from Greek and Latin Elements
   219. Prefixes and Suffixes
   220. Coinages
   221. Common Words from Proper Names
   222. Old Words with New Meanings
   223. The Influence of Journalism
   224. Changes of Meaning
   225. Slang
   226. Register
   227. Accent
   228. British and Irish English
   229. English World-Wide
   230. Pidgins and Creoles
   231. Spelling Reform
   232. Purist Efforts
   233. Gender Issues and Linguistic Change
   234. The Oxford English Dictionary
   235. Grammatical Tendencies
   236. Verb-adverb Combinations
   237. A Liberal Creed
11 The English Language in America
   238. The Settlement of America
   239. The Thirteen Colonies
   240. The Middle West
   241. The Far West
   242. Uniformity of American English
   243. Archaic Features in American English
   244. Early Changes in the Vocabulary
   245. National Consciousness
   246. Noah Webster and an American Language
   247. Webster's Influence on American Spelling
   248. Webster's Influence on American Pronunciation
   249. Pronunciation
   250. The American Dialects
   251. The Controversy over Americanisms
   252. The Purist Attitude
   253. Present Differentiation of Vocabulary
   254. American Words in General English
   255. Scientific Interest in American English
   256. American English and World English
12 The Twenty-first Century
   257. The Future of English: Three Circles
   258. How Many Speakers?
   259. Cross-linguistic Influence and the Spread of Languages
   260. The Relative Difficulty of Languages
   261. The Importance of Chinese
   262. India and the Second Circle
   263. The Expanding Circle
   264. Coming Full Circle

 ・ Baugh, Albert C. and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 6th ed. London: Routledge, 2013.

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2014-12-07 Sun

#2050. Knowles の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc]

 「#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-10-25-1]),「#2038. Fennell の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-11-25-1]) に続き,社会言語学的な観点を多分に含んだもう1つの読みやすい英語史書,Gerry Knowles 著 A Cultural History of the English Language の目次を掲げる.歴史社会言語学的な立場からの英語史概説書を紹介する機会が多いが,個人的には今や古典といってよい,筋金入りの構造主義路線をいく Strang や特異な言語史観をもつ Görlach なども本当は好きである.それでも個別言語史は話者(集団)の歴史,いわゆる外面史とともに記述するのが原則だろうとは思っている.
 Knowles の章節のタイトルを見ていくと,Jespersen の Growth and Structure of the English Language を彷彿させるところがある.社会史としての英語史の流れが簡潔にとらえられる目次だ.Knowles に言及した過去の記事も参照されたい.

1 Introduction
   1.1 An outline history
   1.2 Language and social change
   1.3 Language, evolution and progress
   1.4 Language and myth
   1.5 Language superiority
2 The origins of the English language
   2.1 The linguistic geography of Europe
   2.2 Language in Britain
   2.3 Early English
   2.4 The survival of Celtic
   2.5 The British people
3 English and Danish
   3.1 Old English and Old Norse
   3.2 Norse immigration
   3.3 The Anglo-Saxon written tradition
   3.4 English in the Danelaw
   3.5 Norse influence on English
4 English and French
   4.1 England and France
   4.2 Literacy in the medieval period
   4.3 The reemergence of English
   4.4 English under French influence
   4.5 Printing
5 English and Latin
   5.1 The Lollards
   5.2 Classical scholarship
   5.3 Scholarly writing in English
   5.4 The English Bible
   5.5 The legacy of Latin
6 The language of England
   6.1 Saxon English
   6.2 The language arts
   6.3 English spelling and pronunciation
   6.4 The study of words
   6.5 Elizabethan English
7 The language of revolution
   7.1 The Norman yoke
   7.2 The Bible and literacy
   7.3 Language, ideology and the Bible
   7.4 The intellectual revolution
   7.5 The linguistic outcome of the English revolution
8 The language of learned and polite persons
   8.1 Language and science
   8.2 The improving language
   8.3 The uniform standard
   8.4 A controlled language
   8.5 A bourgeois language
9 The language of Great Britain
   9.1 The codification of Standard English
   9.2 London and the provinces
   9.3 English beyond England
   9.4 English pronunciation
   9.5 Change in Standard English
10 The language of empire
   10.1 The international spread of English
   10.2 The illustrious past
   10.3 Working-class English
   10.4 The standard of English pronunciation
   10.5 Good English
11 Conclusion
   11.1 The aftermath of empire
   11.2 English in the media
   11.3 Speech and language technology
   11.4 The information superhighway
   11.5 English in the future

 ・ Knowles, Gerry. A Cultural History of the English Language. London: Arnold, 1997.
 ・ Strang, Barbara M. H. A History of English. London: Methuen, 1970.
 ・ Görlach, Manfred. The Linguistic History of English. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997.
 ・ Jespersen, Otto. Growth and Structure of the English Language. 10th ed. Chicago: U of Chicago, 1982.

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2014-11-25 Tue

#2038. Fennell の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc][flash]

 「#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次」 ([2014-10-25-1]) に続き,英語史概説書の目次を挙げて,英語史 (a history of English) を数分で俯瞰するというシリーズの第2弾.Fennell (2001) は,本ブログでもたびたび参照してきた英語史概説書であり,歴史社会言語学的なアプローチに特徴がある.ある書評を読むと,"A Sociolinguistic Approach" という副題の割には,とりわけ古い時代における社会言語学的な扱いは弱く,体系的でもないという.一方で,最後の3章,後期近代英語以降の各章では社会言語学的な洞察が光っており,読むに値するという評価がある.私もおよそこの評価に同意する.新しい洞察がどれだけあるかといえば必ずしも多くはないかもしれないが,近代以前の時代についても社会言語学的に興味深い話題をいくつか提供しており,社会言語学的に英語史を眺めるとどうなるかという試みとしてはよいのではないかと好意的に見ている.社会言語学寄りとはいえ伝統的な構造言語学的な記述も多いので,その他の定評のある英語史概説書を1, 2冊読んだ上で読むのに適するのではないか.ノードの開閉もできる Flash 版ももどうぞ.

1 Introduction
   1.1 The Time Periods of English
   1.2 Language Change
   1.3 Sources of Information on Language Change
   1.4 Linguistic Preliminaries
   1.5 The Sounds of English, and Symbols Used to Describe Them
      1.5.1 Consonants
      1.5.2 Vowels Monophthongs Diphthongs
   1.6 Structure of the Book
2 The Pre-history of English
   Timeline: The Indo-European Period
   2.1 The Indo-European Languages and Linguistic Relatedness
      2.1.1 The Beginnings
      2.1.2 The Development of Historical Linguistics
      2.1.3 Genetic Relatedness
   2.2 Linguistic Developments: The Indo-European Language Family
      2.2.1 Family-Tree Relationships
      2.2.2 The Indo-European Family Indo-Iranian Armenian Albanian Balto-Slavonic Hellenic Italic Celtic Germanic
   2.3 From Indo-European to Germanic
         2.3.1 Prosody
         2.3.2 The Consonant System: Sound Shifts
   Grimm's Law
   Verner's Law
   The Second Consonant Shift
         2.3.3 The Vowel System
         2.3.4 Morphology
         2.3.5 Syntax
         2.3.6 Lexicon
         2.3.7 Semantics
         2.3.8 Indo-European/Germanic Texts
         2.3.9 Neogrammarians, Structuralists and Contemporary Linguistic Models
   2.4 Typological Classification
      2.4.1 Universals Syntactic Universals
      2.4.2 Morphological Typology
   2.5 Sociolinguistic Focus. The Indo-European Tribes and the Spread of Language. Language Contact and Language Change. Archaeological Linguistics
      2.5.1 Language Contact
      2.5.2 Archaeological Linguistics
   2.6 Conclusion
3 Old English
   Timeline: The Old English Period
   3.1 Social and Political History
      3.1.1 Britain before the English
      3.1.2 The Anglo-Saxon Invasions
      3.1.3 Anglo-Saxon Influence
      3.1.4 Scandinavian Influence
   3.2 Linguistic Developments: The Sounds, Structure and Typology of Old English
      3.2.1 The Structure of Old English OE Consonants Vowels: from Germanic to Old English Old English Gender Inflection in Old English Old English Syntax Old English Vocabulary
   3.3 Linguistic and Literary Achievements
      3.3.1 Texts Prose Poetry
   3.4 The Dialects of Old English
   3.5 Sociolinguistic Focus
      3.5.1 Language Contact Latin and Celtic The Scandinavians
4 Middle English
   Timeline: The Middle English Period
   4.1 Social and Political History
      4.1.1 Political History: The Norman Conquest to Edward I
      4.1.2 Social History The Establishment of Towns and Burghs and the Beginnings of Social Stratification
   4.2 Linguistic Developments: Middle English Sounds and Structure, with Particular Emphasis on the Breakdown of the Inflectional System and its Linguistic Typological Implications
      4.2.1 Major Changes in the Sound System The Consonants Consonant Changes from Old to Middle English Vowels in Stressed Syllables Vowels in Unstressed Syllables Lengthening and Shortening Summary Table of Vowel Changes from Old to Middle English The Formation of Middle English Diphthongs
      4.2.2 Major Morphological Changes from Old to Middle English Loss of Inflections Other Changes in the Morphological System Verbs
      4.2.3 Middle English Syntax Word Order
      4.2.4 The Lexicon: Loan Words from French Numbers and Parts of the Body Two French Sources
   4.3 Middle English Dialects
      4.3.1 Linguistic and Literary Achievements Middle English Literature
      4.3.2 Language
      4.3.3 Genre
   4.4 Sociolinguistic Focus: Social Stratification, Multilingualism and Dialect Variation. Language Contact: The Myth of Middle English Creolization
      4.4.1 English Re-established Language and the Rise of the Middle Class
      4.4.2 The Development of Standard English The Evolution of ME 'Standard' English
      4.4.3 Middle English Creolization: Myth? Definitions Pidgins and Creoles in England?
   4.5 Conclusion
5 Early Modern English
   Timeline: The Early Modern English Period
   5.1 Social and Political History
      5.1.1 Historical and Political Background Internal Instability and colonial Expansion
   5.2 Linguistic Developments: The Variable Character of Early Modern English
      5.2.1 Phonology Consonants Vowels The Great Vowel Shift
      5.2.2 Morphology Nouns Pronouns Adjectives and Adverbs Verbs The Spread of Northern Forms
      5.2.3 Syntax Periphrastic do Progressive Verb Forms Passives
      5.2.4 Sample Text
      5.2.5 Vocabulary
      5.2.6 The Anxious State of English: The Search for Authority Dictionaries and the Question of Linguistic Authority: Swift's and Johnson's View of Language
   5.3 Linguistic and Literary Achievement
   5.4 Sociolinguistic Focus
      5.4.1 Variation in Early Modern English
      5.4.2 Standardization The Printing Press The Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation English Established
      5.4.3 The Great Vowel Shift Phonological Change
      5.4.4 Case Study: Power and Solidarity Relations in Early Modern English
   5.5 Conclusion
6 Present-Day English
   Timeline: Present-Day English
   6.1 Social and Political History
      6.1.1 The Age of Revolutions, Wars and Imperialism
      6.1.2 Urbanization, Industrialization and Social Stratification
   6.2 Linguistic Developments
      6.2.1 Morphology and Syntax Morphology Syntax
      6.2.2 The Lexicon Colonialism, Contact and Borrowings Neologisms Illustrative Texts
   6.3 Modern English Dialects
      6.3.1 Traditional Dialects
      6.3.2 Modern Dialects
      6.3.3 Received Pronunciation (RP): The Social Background Characteristics of RP
      6.3.4 RP, Estuary English and 'the Queen's English'
   6.4 Sociolinguistic Focus: English in Scotland, Ireland and Wales --- Multilingualism in Britain
      6.4.1 English in the British Isles English in Scotland English in Wales English in Ireland
      6.4.2 Immigrant Varieties of English in Britain Immigration to Britain in the PDE Period Colonial Immigration and Language
7 English in the United States
   Timeline: America in the Modern Period
   7.1 Social and Political History
      7.1.1 Settlement and Language
      7.1.2 Settlement by Region The Original Thirteen Colonies The Middle West The South and West
   7.2 The Development of American English
      7.2.1 The Strength and maintenance of Dialect Boundaries
      7.2.2 How, Why and When American English Began to Diverge from British English Physical Separation The Different Physical Conditions Encountered by the Settlers Contact with Immigrant Non-Native Speakers of English Developing Political Differences and the Growing American Sense of National Identity
   7.3 Language Variation in the United States
      7.3.1 Uniformity and Diversity in Early American English
      7.3.2 Regional Dialect Divisions in American English The Lexicon Phonology: Consonants Phonology: Vowels
      7.3.3 Social and Ethnic Dialects Social Class and Language Change Ethnicity African-American Vernacular English Traditional Dialects and the Resistance to Change
8 World-Wide English
   Timeline: World-Wide English
   8.1 Social and Political History: The Spread of English across the Globe
      8.1.1 British Colonialism Canada The Caribbean Australia New Zealand South Africa South Asia Former Colonial Africa: West Africa East Africa South-East Asia and South Pacific
      8.1.2 An Overview of the Use of English throughout the World
   8.2 English as a Global language
      8.2.1 The Industrial Revolution
      8.2.2 American Economic Superiority and Political Leadership
      8.2.3 American Technological Domination
      8.2.4 The Boom in English language Teaching
      8.2.5 The Need for a Global Language
      8.2.6 Structural Considerations
      8.2.7 Global and at the Same Time Local
   8.3 English as a Killer Language
      8.3.1 Language Death
      8.3.2 Language and Communication Technology
   8.4 The Future of English

 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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2014-10-25 Sat

#2007. Gramley の英語史概説書の目次 [historiography][hel_education][toc]

 概説書の目次というのは,その分野の全体像を見渡すのにうってつけである.英語史概説書も例外ではない.例えば,「#1301. Gramley の英語史概説書のコンパニオンサイト」 ([2012-11-18-1]) で紹介した The History of English: An Introduction の目次を取り上げよう.Gramley の英語史概説書コンパニオンサイトこちらのページより目次が得られるので,以下そこから目次の章立ての部分のみを抜き出したものを転載する.

Chapter 1: The origins of English (before 450)
   1.1. The origins of human language
   1.2. Language change
   1.3. Changes in Germanic before the invasions of Britain
   1.4. The world of the Germanic peoples
   1.5. The Germanic migrations
   1.6. Summary
Chapter 2: Old English: early Germanic Britain (450--700)
   2.1. The first peoples
   2.2. The Germanic incursions
   2.3. Introduction to Old English
   2.4. The Christianization of England
   2.5. Literature in the early Old English period
   2.6. Summary
Chapter 3: Old English: the Viking invasions and their consequences (700--1066/1100)
   3.1. The Viking invasions
   3.2. Linguistic influence of Old Norse
   3.3. Creolization
   3.4. Alfred's reforms and the West Saxon standard
   3.5. Monastic reform, linguistic developments, and literary genres
   3.6. Summary
Chapter 4: Middle English: The non-standard period (1066/1100--1350)
   4.1. Dynastic conflict and the Norman Conquest
   4.2. Linguistic features of Middle English in the non-standard period
   4.3. French influence on Middle English and the question of creolization
   4.4. English literature
   4.5. Dialectal diversity in ME
   4.6. Summary
Chapter 5: Middle English: the emergence of Standard English (1350--1500)
   5.1. Political and social turmoil and demographic developments
   5.2. The expansion of domains
   5.3. Chancery English (Chancery Standard)
   5.4. Literature
   5.5. Variation
   5.6 Summary
Chapter 6: The Early Modern English Period (1500--1700)
   6.1. The Early Modern English Period
   6.2. Early Modern English
   6.3. Regulation and codification
   6.4. Religious and scientific prose and belles lettres
   6.5. Variation: South and North
   6.6. Summary
Chapter 7: The spread of English (since the late sixteenth century)
   7.1. Social-historical background
   7.2. Language policy
   7.3. The emergence of General English (GenE)
   7.4. Transplantation
   7.5. Linguistic correlates of European expansionism
   7.6. Summary
Chapter 8: English in Great Britain and Ireland (since 1700)
   8.1. Social and historical developments in Britain and Ireland
   8.2. England and Wales
   8.3. Scotland
   8.4. Ireland
   8.5. Urban varieties
   8.6. Summary
Chapter 9: English pidgins, English creoles, and English (since the early seventeenth century)
   9.1. European expansion and the slave trade
   9.2. Language contact
   9.3. Pidgins
   9.4. Creoles
   9.5. Theories of origins
   9.6 Summary
Chapter 10: English in North America (since the early seventeenth century)
   10.1. The beginnings of English in North America
   10.2. Colonial English
   10.3. Development of North American English after American independence
   10.4. Ethnic variety within AmE
   10.5. Summary
Chapter 11: English in the ENL communities of the Southern Hemisphere (since 1788)
   11.1. Social-historical background
   11.2. Southern Hemisphere English: grammar
   11.3. Southern Hemisphere English: pronunciation
   11.4. Southern Hemisphere English: vocabulary and pragmatics
   11.5. Regional and ethnic variation
   11.6. Summary
Chapter 12: English in the ESL countries of Africa and Asia (since 1795)
   12.1. English as a Second Language
   12.2. Language planning and policy
   12.3. Linguistic features of ESL
   12.4. Substrate influence
   12.5. Identitarian function of language
   12.6. Summary
Chapter 13: Global English (since 1945)
   13.1. The beginnings of Global English
   13.2. Media dominance
   13.3. Features of medialized language
   13.4. ENL, ESL, and ELF/EFL
   13.5. The identitarian role of the multiplicity of Englishes
   13.6. Summary

 近年の英語史概説書におよそ共有される特徴ではあるが,近現代の英語を巡る社会言語学的な記述や論考が目立つ.Gramley では,英語の諸変種(ピジン語やクレオール語を含め)について多くの紙幅が割かれており,とりわけ12--13章においてその内容が充実しているように思われる.また,ENL, ESL, ELF/EFL の区別にかかわらず英語が "identitarian role" を担っているという指摘が繰り返されている辺り,21世紀的な英語観が感じられる.社会言語学的な色彩の濃い英語史概説書として,Fennell と並んでお勧めしたい.

 ・ Gramley, Stephan. The History of English: An Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge, 2012.
 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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2014-10-11 Sat

#1993. Hickey による言語外的要因への慎重論 [causation][contact][language_change][history_of_linguistics][toc]

 昨日の記事「#1992. Milroy による言語外的要因への擁護」 ([2014-10-10-1]) を含め,ここ2週間余のあいだに言語接触や言語変化における言語外的要因の重要性について複数の記事を書いてきた (cf. [2014-09-25-1], [2014-09-26-1], [2014-10-04-1]) .今回は,視点のバランスを取るために,言語外的要因に対する慎重論もみておきたい.Hickey (195) は,自らが言語接触の入門書を編んでいるほどの論客だが,"Language Change" と題する文章で,言語接触による言語変化の説明について冷静な見解を示している.

   Already in 19th century Indo-European studies contact appears as an explanation for change though by and large mainstream Indo-Europeanists preferred language-internal accounts. One should stress that strictly speaking contact is not so much an explanation for language change as a suggestion for the source of a change, that is, it does not say why a change took place but rather where it came from. For instance, a language such as Irish or Welsh may have VSO as a result of early contact with languages also showing this word order. However, this does not explain how VSO arose in the first place (assuming that it is not an original word order for any language). The upshot of this is that contact accounts frequently just push back the quest for explanation a stage further.
   Considerable criticism has been levelled at contact accounts because scholars have often been all too ready to accept contact as a source, to the neglect of internal factors or inherited features within a language. This readiness to accept contact, particularly when other possibilities have not been given due consideration, has led to much criticism of contact accounts in the 1970s and 1980s . . . . However, a certain swing around can be seen from the 1990s onwards, a re-valorisation of language contact when considered from an objective and linguistically acceptable point of view as demanded by Thomason & Kaufman (1988) . . . .

 上に引用した Hickey の "Language Change" は,限られた紙幅ながらも,言語変化理論を手際よくまとめた良質の解説文である.以下,参考までに節の目次を挙げておく.

Issues in language change
   Internal and external factors
   Simplicity and symmetry
   Iconicity and indexicality
   Markedness and naturalness
   Telic changes and epiphenomena
   Mergers and distinctions
   Possible changes
   Unidirectionality of change
   Ebb and flow
Change and levels of language
   Phonological change
   Morphological change
   Syntactic change
The study of universal grammar
   The principles and parameters model
Semantic change
Pragmatic change
   Comparative method
   Internal reconstruction
Sociolinguistic investigations
   Data collection method
   Genre variation and stylistics
Pathways of change
   Long-term change: Grammaticalization
   Large-scale changes: The typological perspective
Contact accounts
Language areas (Sprachbünde)

 ・ Hickey, Raymond. "Language Change." Variation and Change. Ed. Mirjam Fried et al. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2010. 171--202.

Referrer (Inside): [2016-05-29-1] [2014-10-26-1]

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2014-09-23 Tue

#1975. 文法化研究の発展と拡大 (2) [grammaticalisation][unidirectionality][pragmatics][subjectification][invisible_hand][teleology][drift][reanalysis][iconicity][exaptation][terminology][toc]

 昨日の記事「#1974. 文法化研究の発展と拡大 (1)」 ([2014-09-22-1]) を受けて,文法化 (grammaticalisation) 研究の守備範囲の広さについて補足する.Bussmann (196--97) によると,文法化がとりわけ関心をもつ疑問には次のようなものがある.

(a) Is the change of meaning that is inherent to grammaticalization a process of desemanticization, or is it rather a case (at least in the early stages of grammaticalization) of a semantic and pragmatic concentration?
(b) What productive parts do metaphors and metonyms play in grammaticalization?
(c) What role does pragmatics play in grammaticalization?
(d) Are there any universal principles for the direction of grammaticalization, and, if so, what are they? Suggestions for such 'directed' principles include: (i) increasing schematicization; (ii) increasing generalization; (iii) increasing speaker-related meaning; and (iv) increasing conceptual subjectivity.

 昨日記した守備範囲と合わせて,文法化研究の潜在的なカバレッジの広さと波及効果の大きさを感じることができる.また,秋元 (vii) の目次より文法化理論に関連する用語を拾い出すだけでも,この分野が言語研究の根幹に関わる諸問題を含む大項目であることがわかるだろう.

第1章 文法化
1.1 序
1.2 文法化とそのメカニズム
1.2.1 語用論的推論 (Pragmatic inferencing)
1.2.2 漂白化 (Bleaching)
1.3 一方向性 (Unidirectionality)
1.3.1 一般化 (Generalization)
1.3.2 脱範疇化 (Decategorialization)
1.3.3 重層化 (Layering)
1.3.4 保持化 (Persistence)
1.3.5 分岐化 (Divergence)
1.3.6 特殊化 (Specialization)
1.3.7 再新化 (Renewal)
1.4 主観化 (Subjectification)
1.5 再分析 (Reanalysis)
1.6 クラインと文法化連鎖 (Grammaticalization chains)
1.7 文法化とアイコン性 (Iconicity)
1.8 文法化と外適応 (Exaptation)
1.9 文法化と「見えざる手」 (Invisible hand) 理論
1.10 文法化と「偏流」 (Drift) 論

 文法化は,主として言語の通時態に焦点を当てているが,一方で主として共時的な認知文法 (cognitive grammar) や機能文法 (functional grammar) とも親和性があり,通時態と共時態の交差点に立っている.そこが,何よりも魅力である.

 ・ Bussmann, Hadumod. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trans. and ed. Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzizi. London: Routledge, 1996.
 ・ 秋元 実治 『増補 文法化とイディオム化』 ひつじ書房,2014年.

Referrer (Inside): [2015-11-01-1] [2015-02-01-1]

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