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最終更新時間: 2020-05-25 07:01

2019-12-28 Sat

#3897. Alternative Histories of English [hel_education][review][history][sociolinguistics][world_englishes][variety]

 この2日間の記事 ([2019-12-26-1], [2019-12-27-1]) で「歴史の if」について考えてみた.反実仮想に基づいた歴史の呼び方の1つとして alternative history があるが,この表現を聞いて思い出すのは,著名な社会言語学者たちによって書かれた英語史の本 Alternative Histories of English である.
 この本は,実際のところ,反実仮想に基づいたフィクションの英語史書というわけではない.むしろ,事実の記述に基づいた堅実な英語史記述である.ただし,現在広く流通している,いわゆる標準英語のメイキングに注目する「正統派」の英語史に対して,各種の非標準英語,すなわち "Englishes" の歴史に光を当てるという趣旨での「もう1つの歴史」というわけである.
 しかし,本書は(過去ではないが)未来に関するある空想に支えられているという点で,反実仮想と近接する部分が確かにある.このことは,2人の編者 Watts and Trudgill が執筆した "In the year 2525" と題する序論にて確認できる.以下に引用しよう.

   If the whole point of a history of English were, as it sometimes appears, to glorify the achievement of (standard) English in the present, then what will speakers in the year 2525 have to say about our current textbooks? We would like to suggest that orthodox histories of English have presented a kind of tunnel vision version of how and why the language achieved its present form with no consideration of the rich diversity and variety of the language or any appreciation of what might happen in the future. Just as we look back at the multivariate nature of Old English, which also included a written, somewhat standardised form, so too might the observer 525 years hence look back and see twentieth century Standard English English as being a variety of peculiarly little importance, just as we can now see that the English of King Alfred was a standard form that was in no way the forerunner of what we choose to call Standard English today.
   There is no reason why we should not, in writing histories of English, begin to take this perspective now rather than wait until 2525. Indeed, we argue that most histories of English have not added at all to the sum of our knowledge about the history of non-standard varieties of English --- i.e. the majority --- since the late Middle English period. It is one of our intentions that this book should help to begin to put that balance right. (1--2)

 正統派に属する伝統的な英語史の偏狭な見方を批判した,傾聴に値する文章である."alternative history" は,この2日間で論じてきたように,原因探求に効果を発揮するだけでなく,広く流通している歴史(観)を相対化するという点でも重要な役割を果たしてくれるだろう.
 本書の出版は2002年だが,それ以降,英語の非標準的な変種や側面に注目する視点は着実に育ってきている.関連して「#1991. 歴史語用論の発展の背景にある言語学の "paradigm shift"」 ([2014-10-09-1]) の記事も参照されたい.なお,このような視点を英語史に適用する試みは,いまだ多くないのが現状である.

 ・ Watts, Richard and Peter Trudgill, eds. Alternative Histories of English. Abingdon: Routledge, 2002.

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2019-11-27 Wed

#3866. Lumbee English [variety][world_englishes][ethnic_group][ame]

 アメリカ英語の民族変種の1つとして "Lumbee English" と呼ばれる変種があることを Smith and Kim (296--97) によって知った.
 ミシシッピ川の東側における最大のアメリカ先住民とされるラムビー族 (Lumbee) の中心地は,失われた植民地として有名な Roanoke からさほど遠くない,North Carolina の Robeson 郡である.彼らの話す言語は,先住民族固有のの土着の言語ではなく,あくまでアメリカ英語である.しかし,それは同民族と結びつけられている独特なアメリカ英語であり,Lumbee English と称されるものである.Robeson 郡の人口構成は複合的であり,40%はアメリカ先住民,35%はヨーロッパ系アメリカ人,25%はアフリカ系アメリカ人とされる.この3者が3様のアメリカ英語変種を話しており,その1つが Lumbee English というわけだ.
 同郡の他の変種と重なる言語特徴も少なくないが,Lumbee English には標準英語とは異なる次のような項目が観察される.

 ・ be 動詞の was/is の規則化(were/are は用いられない): they was dancin' all night.
 ・ 現在分詞に接頭辞 a- を付す語法: my head was just a'boilin.
 ・ 否定の were の規則化: she weren't here.
 ・ 完了の beI'm been there.
 ・ 語彙: ellick (クリーム入りコーヒー)

 若い世代の話者による Lumbee English は,同郡で話されているアフリカ系アメリカ人の英語変種と重なる部分も多いようだが,それでも十分な独立性を保っているために,独自の変種とみなされている.複数の民族の交わる複合的な言語接触から生まれた,独特のアメリカ英語変種として興味深い.

 ・ Smith, K. Aaron and Susan M. Kim. This Language, A River: A History of English. Peterborough: Broadview P, 2018.

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2019-03-07 Thu

#3601. McArthur の英語史年表 [timeline][history][world_englishes]

 McArthur の英語学事典のなかに,"A chronology of English" (475--81) と題して英語史年表が掲げられている.かなり長く詳しい年表である.「#2562. Mugglestone (編)の英語史年表」 ([2016-05-02-1]) で挙げた年表も長いが,それも今回の McArthur のものに多く依拠しているようだ.とりわけ,近現代にかけての英語の世界的な拡大に注目する年表となっている.参照用にどうぞ.

55 BCRoman military expedition to Britain by Julius Caesar.
AD 43Roman invasion of Britain under the Emperor Claudius, beginning 400 years of control over much of the island.
150From around this date, with Roman permission, small numbers of settlers arrive from the coastlands of Germany, speaking dialects ancestral to English.
297First mention of the Picts of Caledonia, tribes beyond Roman control, well to the north of Hadrian's Wall.
419Goths sack Rome.
436The end of a period of gradual Roman withdrawal. Britons south of the Wall are attacked by the Picts and by Scots from Ireland. Angles, Saxons, and other Germanic settlers come first as mercenaries to help the Britons, then take over more and more territory.
449the traditional date for the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon settlements.
450--80The first surviving Old English inscriptions, in runic letters.
495The Saxon kingdom of Wessex established.
500The kingdom of Dalriada established in Argyll by Scots from Ireland.
527The Saxon kingdoms of Essex and Middlesex established.
550The Angle kingdoms of Mercia, East Anglia, and Northumbria established.
557At the Battle of Deorham, the West Saxons drive a wedge between the Britons of Wales and Cornwall.
597Aethelberht, king of Kent, welcomes Augustine and the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity begins.
613At the Battle of Chester, the angles of Northumbria drive a wedge between the Britons of Wales and Cumbria.
638Edwin of Northumbria takes Lothian from the Britons.
700The first manuscript records of Old English from about this time.
792Scandinavians begin to raid and settle in Britain, Ireland, and France. In 793, they sack the monastery of Lindisfarne, the centre of Northumbrian scholarship.
795The Danes settle in parts of Ireland.
815Egbert of Wessex defeats the south-western Britons of Cornwall and incorporates Cornwall into his kingdom.
828Egbert of Wessex is hailed as bretwalda (lord of Britain), overlord of the Seven Kingdoms of the Angles and Saxons (the Heptarchy). England begins to emerge.
834The Danes raid England.
843Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Scots, gains the throne of Pictland.
865The Danes occupy Northumbria and establish a kingdom at York. Danish begins to influence English.
871Alfred becomes king of Wessex, translates works of Latin into English, and establishes the writing of prose in English.
886The boundaries of the Danelaw are settled.
911Charles II of France grants lands on the lower Seine to the Viking chief Hrolf the Ganger (Rollo the Rover). The beginnings of Normandy and Norman French.
954The expulsion of Eric Blood-Axe, last Danish king of York.
965The English invade the northern Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd.
973Edgar of England cedes Lothian to Kenneth II, King of Scots. Scotland multilingual: Gaelic dominant, Norse in the north, Cumbric in the South-west, English in the south-east, Latin for church and law.
992A treaty between Ethelred of England and the Normans.
1000The approximate date of the only surviving manuscript of the Old English epic poem Beowulf.
1007Ethelred the Unready pays danegeld to stop the Danes attacking England. In 1013, however, they take the country and Ethelred flees to Normandy.
1014The end of Danish rule in Ireland.
1016--42The reigns of Canute/Knut and his sons over Denmark, Norway, and England.
1051Edward the Confessor, King of England, impressed by the Normans and with French-speaking counsellors at his court, names as his heir William, Duke of Normandy, but reneges on his promise before his death.
1066The Norman Conquest. William defeats King Harold at Hastings, and sets in train the Normanization of the upper classes of the Britain Isles. England multilingual: English the majority language, Danish in the north, Cornish in the far south-west, Welsh on the border with Wales, Norman French at court and in the courts, and Latin in church and school.
1150The first surviving texts of Middle English.
1167The closure of the University of Paris to students from England accelerates the development of a university at Oxford.
1171Henry II invades Ireland and declares himself its overlord, introducing Norman French and English into the island.
1204King John loses the Duchy of Normandy to France.
1209The exodus of a number of students from Oxford leads to the Establishment of a second university in Cambridge.
1272--1307The reign of Edward I, who consolidates royal authority in England, and extends it permanently to Wales and temporarily to Scotland.
1282Death of Llewelyn, last native prince of Wales. In 1301, Edward of England's son and heir is invested as Prince of Wales.
1284The Statute of Rhuddlan establishes the law of England in Wales (in French and Latin), but retains the legal use of Welsh.
1314Robert Bruce reasserts Scottish independence by defeating Edward II at Bannockburn, an achievement later celebrated in an epic written in Scots.
1337The outbreak of the Hundred Years War between England and France, which ends with the loss of all England's French possessions save the Channel Islands.
1343?--1400The life of Geoffrey Chaucer.
1348(1) English replaces Latin as medium of instruction in schools, but not at Oxford and Cambridge. (2) The worst year of the Black Death.
1362(1) Through the Statute of Pleading, written in French, English replaces French as the language of law in England, but the records continue to be kept in Latin. (2) English is used for the first time in Parliament.
1384The publication of John Wycliffe's English translation of the Latin Bible.
1385The scholar John of Trevisa notes that 'in all the gramere scoles of Engelond, children leveth Frensche and construeth and lerneth in Englische'.
1400By this date the Great Vowel Shift has begun.
1450Printing by movable type invented in the Rhineland.
1476(1) The first English book printed: The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye. translated from French by William Caxton, who printed it at Bruges in Flanders. (2) Caxton sets up the first printing press in England, at Westminster. In 1478, he publishes Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
1485The Battle of Bosworth, after which the part-Welsh Henry Tudor becomes King of England. Welsh nobles follow him to London.
1492Christopher Columbus discovers the new World.
1497Giovanni Caboto (Anglicized as 'John Cabot'), in a ship from Bristol, lands on the Atlantic coast of North America.
1499The publication of Thesaurus linguae romanae et britannicae (Treasury of the Roman and British Tongues), the first English-to-Latin wordbook, the work of Galfridus Grammaticus (Geoffrey the Grammarian).
1504The settlement of St John's on Newfoundland as a shore base for English fisheries.
1507The German geographer Martin Waldseemüller puts the name America on his map of the world.
1525The publication of William Tyndale's translation of the New Testament of the Bible.
1534Jacques Cartier lands on the Gaspé Peninsula in North America and claims it for France.
1536 and 1542The Statue of Wales (Acts of Union) unites England and Wales, excluding Welsh from official use.
1542Henry VIII of England proclaims himself King of Ireland.
1549The publication of the first version of the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England, the work in the main of Thomas Cranmer.
1558--1603The reign of Elizabeth I.
1450--1620The plantation of Ireland, first by English settlers and after 1603 also by Scots, establishing English throughout the island and Scots in Ulster.
1564--1616The life of William Shakespeare.
1583Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes Newfoundland as England's first colony beyond the British Isles.
1584The settlement of Roanoke Island by colonists led by Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1587, Virginia Dare born at Roanoke, first child of English parents in North America. In 1590, the settlers of Roanoke disappear without trace.
1588The publication of Bishop Morgan's translation of the Bible into Welsh, sering as a focus for the survival of the language.
1600English traders establish the East India Company.
1603The Union of the Crowns under James VI of Scotland, I of England.
1604The publication of Robert Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall, the first dictionary of English.
1606The Dutch explore northern New Holland (Terra Australis).
1607The Jamestown colony in Virginia, the first permanent English settlement and the first representative assembly in the New World.
1608Samuel Champlain founds the city of Quebec in New France.
1611The publication of the Authorized or King James Version of the Bible, intended for use in the Protestant services of England, Scotland, and Ireland. A major influence on the written language and in adapting Scots towards English.
1612(1) Bermuda colonized under the charter of the Virginia Company. (2) Traders of the East India Company establish themselves in Gujarat, India.
1614King James writes in English to the Moghul Emperor Jehangir, in order to encourage trade with 'the Orientall Indies'.
1619At the Jamestown colony in America, the first African slaves arrive on a Dutch ship.
1620The Mayflower arrives in the New World and the Pilgrim Fathers set up Plimoth Plantation in Massachusetts. English is now in competition as a colonial language in the Americas with Dutch, French, Spanish, and Portuguese.
1622Publication in London of the first English newspaper, Weekly News.
1623Publication in London of the First Folio of Shakespeare's plays.
1627An English colony established on Barbados in the Caribbean.
1637(1) English traders arrive on the coast of China. (2) The Académie française founded.
1640An English trading factory established at Madras.
1647The Bahamas colonized by settlers from Bermuda.
1652The first Dutch settlers arrive in southern Africa.
1655England acquires Jamaica from Spain.
1659The East India Company annexes St Helena in the south Atlantic.
1660John Dryden expresses his admiration for the Académie française and its work in 'fixing' French and wishes for something similar to serve English.
1662The Royal Society of London receives its charter from Charles II. In 1664, it appoints a committee to consider ways of improving English as a language of science.
1670The Hudson's Bay Company founded for fur trading in northern America.
1674Charles II receives Bombay from the Portuguese in the dowry of Catherine of Braganza and gives it to the East India Company.
1687Isaac Newton writes Principia Mathematica in Latin: see 1704.
1688The publication of Oronooko, or the History of the Royal Slave, by Aphra Behn: one of the first novels in English, by the first woman novelist in English, based on personal experience of a slave revolt in Surinam.
1690A trading factory established at Calcutta in Bengal.
1696British and French colonists in North America in open conflict.
1697The Boston clergyman Cotton Mather applies the term American to English-speaking settlers in the New World.
1702Publication in London of the first regular daily newspaper in English, The Daily Courant.
1704Isaac Newton writes his second major work, Opticks, in English: see 1687.
1707The Act of Union, uniting the Parliaments of England and Scotland, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain, but keeping separate the state religions, educations systems, and laws of the two kingdoms.
1712(1) Jonathan Swift in Dublin proposes an English Academy to 'fix' the language and compete adequately with French. (2) In India, the Moghul Empire begins to decline.
1713(1) At the Treat of Utrecht, France surrenders Hudson's Bay, Acadia, and Newfoundland to the British. (2) Gibraltar is ceded to Britain by Spain.
1726Ephraim Chambers publishes his Cyclopaedia, the first encyclopedia.
1731The abolition of Law French in England.
1746The Wales and Berwick Act, by which England is deemed to include Wales and the Scottish town of Berwick is incorporated into England.
1755The publication of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language.
1757The East India Company becomes the power behind the government of Bengal.
1759General James Wolfe takes Quebec for the British.
1759--96The life of Robert Burns.
1762The publication of Robert Lowth's Short Introduction to the English Grammar.
1763The French cede New France to Britain, retaining only St Pierre and Miquelon (islands off Newfoundland).
1768--71The partwork publication in Edinburgh of The Encyclopaedia Britannica.
1770Captain James Cook takes possession of the Australian continent for Britain.
1770--1850The life of William Wordsworth.
1771--1832The life of Sir Walter Scott.
1774(1) The Quebec Act creates the British province of Quebec, extending to the Ohio and Mississippi. (2) The Regulating Act places Bombay and Madras under the control of Bengal and the East India Company becomes a kind of state.
1776The Declaration of Independence by thirteen British colonies in North America and the start of the American War of Independence (1776--83) which created the United States of America, the first nation outside the British Isles with English as its principal language.
1778Captain James Cook visits and names the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).
1780--1800British Empire loyalists move from the US to Canada.
1785In London, the newspaper The Daily Universal Register founded. Renamed The Times in 1788.
1786(1) Lord Cornwallis is appointed first Governor-General of British India. (2) A British penal colony is established at Botany Bay in Australia. In 1788, the first convicts arrive there.
1791(1) The British colonies of Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec) are established. (2) In London, the newspaper The Observer is founded, the oldest national Sunday newspaper in Britain.
1792The first Europeans settle in New Zealand.
1794The publication of Lindley Murray's English Grammar.
1802The establishment of the British colonies of Ceylon and Trinidad.
1803(1) The Act of Union incorporating Ireland into Britain, as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. (2) The Louisiana Purchase, by which the US buys from France its remaining North American territories, and doubles its size.
1806The British take control of Cape Colony in southern Africa.
1808The establishment of the British colony of Sierra Leone.
1814(1) The British annex Cape Colony. (2) France cedes to Britain Malta, Mauritius, St Lucia, and Tobago.
1816The establishment of the British colony of Bathurst (the Gambia).
1819(1) The establishment of the British colony of Singapore. (2) The US purchases Florida from Spain.
1820Christian missionaries from the US visit Hawaii.
1821American settlers arrive in the Mexican territory of Texas.
1828The publication of Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language.
1829Australia becomes a British dependency.
1831The establishment of the colony of British Guiana.
1833(1) The abolition of slavery in the British Empire. (2) St Helena becomes a British colony.
1835Thomas Macaulay writes the Minute on Education whereby the British rulers of India endorse English as a language of education for Indians.
1835--1910The life of Sam Clemens (Mark Twain).
1836Texas declares its independence from Mexico.
1839The first Boer Republic is established in Natal, South Africa, after the Great Trek from the Cape.
1840(1) The Treaty of Waitangi, by which the Maori of New Zealand cede all rights and powers of government to Britain. (2) The transportation of convicts to Eastern Australia is ended.
1841(1) Upper and Lower Canada are brought together as British North America. (2) New Zealand becomes a British colony. (3) In London, the founding of the weekly magazine Punch.
1842(1) The opening of Chinese ports other than Canton to Western traders, after the defeat of China in the Opium War. Hong Kong is ceded by China to Britain as a Crown Colony. (2) The Philological Society is formed in London.
1844The first telegraph message transmitted, between Washington and Baltimore.
1845Texas becomes a state of the United States.
1846The British annex Natal but recognize the Transvaal and the Orange Free State as autonomous Boer republics.
1848In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico cedes vast western territories to the US.
1850(1) Britain takes control of the Bay Islands of Honduras, an English-speaking enclave in Central America. (2) Legislative councils are established in Australia by British Act of Parliament.
1852The publication of Roget's Thesaurus.
1853(1) Japan is forced by Commander Matthew Perry of the US Navy to open its harbours to Western trade. (2) The transportation of convicts to Tasmania is ended.
1855The government of the colony of New South Wales is established.
1856The governments of the colonies of Tasmania and Victoria are established.
1857The Sepoy Rebellion (War of Independence, Indian Mutiny) in India leads to the transfer of British India from the East India Company to the Crown.
1858(1) The Philological Society passes a resolution calling for a new dictionary of English on historical principles. (2) Britain cedes the Bay Islands to Honduras.
1861The establishment of the British colony of Lagos (Nigeria).
1862The establishment of the colony of British Honduras.
1863The establishment of the Cambridge Overseas Examinations.
1865The abolition of slavery in the US, at the end of the Civil War. At the outbreak of the war there were over 4m slaves.
1867(1) The Dominion of Canada is created, consisting of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. (2) Alaska is purchased from Russia by the US.
1868(1) Transportation of convicts to Western Australia is ended. (2) In the US, Christopher Latham Sholes and colleagues patent the first successful typewriter.
1869(1) Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories are bought by Canada from the Hudson's Bay Company. (2) Basutoland becomes a British protectorate.
1870Manitoba becomes a province of Canada.
1771British Columbian becomes a province of Canada.
1873(1) The formation of the English Dialect Society (dissolved in 1896). (2) Prince Edward Islands becomes a provicen of Canada.
1874The establishment of the British colony of the Gold Coast in West Africa.
1879James A. H. Murray begins editing the Philological Society's New English Dictionary on Historical Principles.
1882--1941The Life of James Joyce.
1884(1) The Berlin Conference, in which European powers begin 'the scramble for Africa'. (2) Britain declares a protectorate over South East New Guinea. (3) The French, Germans, and British attempt to annex what shortly becomes the German colony of Kamerun. (4) Publication of the irst fascile, A--Ant, of Murray's dictionary (the OED).
1886The aanexation of Burma into British India and the abolition of the Burmese monarchy.
1888--94The establishment of Britisih protectorates in Kenya, Uganda, and Zanzibar.
1889The formation of the American Dialect Society.
1895The establishment of the British East African Protectorate, open to white settlers.
1898(1) The annexation of Hawaii by the US. In 1900, it becomes a US territory. (2) Spain cedes the Philippines and Puerto Rico to the US. (3) Yukon Territory comes under Canadian government control.
1901(1) The establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia as a dominion of the British Empire. (2) The first wireless telegraphy messages sent across the Atlantic by Guglielmo Marconi (Cornwall to Newfoundland). (3) The first film-show, in an arcade opened in Los Angeles, California.
1903(1) A message from US President Theodore Roosevelt circles the world in less than 10 minutes by Pacific Cable.
1903--50The life of George Orwell.
1905(1) Alberta and Saskatchewan become provinces of Canada. (2) The first cartoon strip, 'Little Nemo', appears in the New York Herald.
1906(1) The formation of the English Association. (2) The first full-length motion picture, The Story of the Kelly Gang. (3) the publication of the Fowler brothers' The King's English.
1907(1) The establishment of New Zealand as a dominion of the British Empire. (2) The first regular studio-based radio broadcasts by the De Forest Radio Telephone Company in the US. (3) The foundation of Hollywood as a film-making centre.
1910(1) The establishment of the Union of South Africa as a dominion of the British Empire. (2) The first radio receivers made in kit form for sale in the US.
1911The publication of the Fowler borthers' Concise Oxford Dictionary.
1913(1) The formation of the Society for Pure English. (2) The first crossword puzzle published, in the New York World.
1914(1) A third Home Rule Bill for Ireland passed by the British Parliament, but prevented from coming into operation by the outbreak of the First World War. (2) The German colony of Kamerun invaded by the French and British.
1915The death of Sir James A. H. Murray, aged 78, having finished the section Trink-Turndown in the OED.
1916(1) The Easter Rising in Dublin, an unsuccessful armed rebellion against the British, during which an Irish Rebulic is proclaimed. (2) The Technicolor process is first used in the film The Gulf Between, in the US.
1917The publication of Daniel Jones's English Pronoucing Dictionary.
1918(1) The formation of the English-Speaking Union. (2) The US War Industries Board declares moving pictures an essential industry.
1919(1) The German colony of Tanganyika ceded to Britain. (2) The German colony of Kamerun divided between France (Cameroun) and Britain (Cameroon). (3) The publication of H. L. Mencken's The American Language.
1920(1) The Partition of Ireland. (2) Kenya becomes a British colony. (3) The first public radio station set up by Marconi in the US.
1921(1) A treaty between the United Kingdom and the Irish Free State, which accepts dominion status within the British Empire. (2) The first full-length 'talkie' Dream Street produced by United Artists, in the US.
1922(1) The establishment of the British Broadcasting Company, renamed the British Boradcasting Corporation (BBC). (2) The founding in the US of the monthly magazine The Reader's Digest.
1923The founding of Time magazine in the US.
1925(1) The borders of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland established. (2) Afrikaans gains official status in South Africa. (3) The founding of the weekly magazine The New Yorker.
1926The publication of Henry W. Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage.
1927(1) Fox's Movietone News, the first sound newsfilm, released in the US. (2) The first film with dialogue, They're Coming to Get Me. released in the US.
1928The publication of Murray's Dictionary as The Oxford English Dictionaryy, 70 years after Trench's proposal to the Philological Society.
1930(1) C. K. Ogden lauches Basic English. (2) The first television programme with synchronized sight and sound broadcast by the BBC.
1931(1) The British Commonwealth of Nations formed. (2) South Africa becomes a dominion of the British Empire. (3) The Cambridge Proficiency Examination held outside Britain for the first time.
1933The publication of supplement to The Oxford English Dictionary.
1934Tghe British Council created as an arm of British cultural diplomacy and a focus for teaching English as a foreign language.
1935(1) The Philippines become a self-governing Commonwealth in association withthe US. (2) The Publication of the first ten Penguin Paperback titles.
1936The Republic of Ireland severs all constitutional links with Great Britain.
1937(1) Burma is seprated from British India and granted a constitution and limited self-rule. (2) In Wales, a new constitution for the National Eisteddfod makes Welsh its official language.
1938Photocopying invented.
1942The publication in Japan of the Idiomatic and Syntactic English Dictionary. prepared before the war by A. S. Hornby, E. V. Gatenby, and H. Wakefield.
1945Japan is occupied bythe Americans on behalf of the Allies.
1946(1) The Philippines gain their independence from the US. (2) The French colony of Cameroun and the British colony of Cameroon become United Nations trusteeships.
1947(1) British India is partitioned and India and Pakistan become independent states. (2) New Zealand gains its independence from Britain.
1948(1) Burma and Ceylon gain their independence from Britain. (2) The dictionary of Hornby et al. is brought out by Oxford University Press as A Learner's Dictionary of Current English.
1949(1) Newfoundland becomes a province of Canada. (2) Two New Guinea territories are combined by the United Nations as a Australian mandate: the United Nations Trust Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
1951The launch of the first two working business computers: the LED in the UK and the UNIVAC in the US.
1952Puerto Rico becomes a Commonwealth in association with the US.
1957(1) The Gold Coast becomes independent from Britain as the Republic of Ghana. (2) Robert W. Burchfield is appointed editor of a new Supplement to The Oxford English Dictionary.
1957--63The British colonies of Malaya and Borneo become independent and unite as Malaysia.
1959Alask and Hawaii become states of the US.
1960Nigeria and French Cameroun become independent.
1961(1) South Africa becomes a republic, leaves the Commonwealth, and adopts Afrikaans and English as its two official languages. (2) The British colony of Cameroon divides, part joining Nigeria, part joining the ex-French colony to become the Republic of Cameroon. (3) Sierra Leone and Cyprus gain their independence from Britain. (4) The publication of Webster's Third International Dictionary.
1962Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uganda gain their independence from Britain.
1963(1) Kenya gains its independence from Britain. (2) The first protests in Wales by the Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg/Welsh Language Society, aimed at achieving fuller use of Welsh.
1964(1) Malta, Nyasaland (as Malawai), Tanganyika and Zanzibar (as Tanzania), and Northern Rhodesia (as Zambia) gain their independence from Britain. (2) The publication in Paris of René Etiemble's Parlez-vous franglais?
1965Gambia and Singapore gain their independence from Britain.
1866Barbados, Basutoland (as Lesotho), Bechuanaland (as Botswana), and British Guiana (as Guyana) gain their independence from Britain.
1967The Welsh Language Act gives Welsh equal validity with English in Wales, and Wales is no longer deemed to be a part of England.
1968Mauritius, Swaziland, and Nauru gain their independence from Britain.
1969Canada becomes officially bilingual, with a commitment to federal services in English and French.
1971The invention of the microprocessor, a revolutionary development in computing.
1972(1) East Pakistan secedes and becomes its Republic of Bangladesh. (2) Two feminist magazines launched: Ms in the US and Spare Rib in the UK.
1973The Bahamas gain their independence.
1974Cyngor yr Iaith Gymraeg/Council for the Welsh Language set up to advise the Secretary of State for Wales on matters concerning the language.
1975(1) Papua New Guinea gains its independence from Australia. (2) The Bas-Lauriol law is passed in France, requiring the use of the French language alone in advertising and commerce.
1977(1) The spacecraft Voyager travels into deep space, carrying a message in English to any extraterrestrials. (2) In Quebec, Loi 101/Bill 101 is passed, making French the sole official language of the province, limiting access to English-medium school, and banning public signs in languages other than French.
1978The government of Northern Territory in Australia is established.
1980The British government averts a fast to the death by Gwynfor Evans, leader of Plaid Cymru (Welsh National Party), by honouring election pledges to provide a fourth television channel using both Welsh and English.
1981British Honduras gains its independence as Belize.
1982The patriation of Canada's constitution. The Canada Act is the last act of the British Parliament concerning Canadian affairs.
1983The publication of The New Testament in Scots, a translation by William L. Lorimer.
1984The launch of the Apple Macintosh personal (desktop) computer.
1985(1) The publication by Longman of A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. (2) The publication by Belknap Press of the first volume of the Dictionary of American Regional English. (3) The launch by Cambridge University Press of the quarterly magazine-cum-journal English Today: The International Review of the English Language.
1986Showing by the BBC in the UK and public television in the US of The Story of English, a television series with both British and American backers, accompanied by a book, and followed by a radio version on BBC World Service.
1989The publication of the 2nd edition of The Oxford English Dictionary, blending the first edition and its supplements.

 ・ McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: OUP, 1992.

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2019-01-22 Tue

#3557. 世界英語における3単現語尾の変異 [variation][variety][world_englishes][new_englishes][3sp][verb][agreement][conjugation][inflection][link][nptr][hypercorrection]

 古今東西の○○英語において,3単現の動詞はどのように屈折しているのか.長らく追いかけている問題で,本ブログでも以下の記事をはじめとして 3sp の各記事で取り上げてきた.

 ・ 「#790. 中英語方言における動詞屈折語尾の分布」 ([2011-06-26-1])
 ・ 「#1850. AAVE における動詞現在形の -s」 ([2014-05-21-1])
 ・ 「#1889. AAVE における動詞現在形の -s (2)」 ([2014-06-29-1])
 ・ 「#1852. 中英語の方言における直説法現在形動詞の語尾と NPTR」 ([2014-05-23-1])
 ・ 「#2310. 3単現のゼロ」 ([2015-08-24-1])
 ・ 「#2112. なぜ3単現の -s がつくのか?」 ([2015-02-07-1])
 ・ 「#2136. 3単現の -s の生成文法による分析」 ([2015-03-03-1])
 ・ 「#2566. 「3単現の -s の問題とは何か」」 ([2016-05-06-1])
 ・ 「#2857. 連載第2回「なぜ3単現に -s を付けるのか? ――変種という視点から」」 ([2017-02-21-1])

 現在の世界中の○○英語においては,3単現の語尾はどのようになっているのか,Methrie and Bhatt (66--67) の記述をまとめておきたい.
 3単現で -s 語尾とゼロ語尾が交替するケースは,数多く報告されている.ナイジェリア変種や東アフリカ諸変種をはじめ,アメリカ・インディアン諸変種,インド変種,インド系南アフリカ変種,黒人南アフリカ変種,フィリピン変種 (e.g. He go to school.),シンガポール変種,ケープ平地変種などがある.
 標準英語の反対を行く興味深い変種もある.単数でゼロとなり,複数で -s を取るという分布だ.アメリカ・インディアン変種のなかでもイスレタ族変種 (Isletan) では,次のような文例が確認されるという.

 ・ there are some parties that goes on over there.
 ・ Some peoples from the outside comes in.
 ・ All the dances that goes on like that occur in the spring.
 ・ The women has no voice to vote.

 ・ Maybe the governor go to these parents' homes.
 ・ About a dollar a day serve out your term.
 ・ This traditional Indian ritual take place in June.
 ・ By this time, this one side that are fast have overlapped.
 ・ The governor don't take the case.

 イスレタ族変種と同様の傾向が,ケープ平地変種でも確認されるという (e.g. They drink and they makes a lot of noise.) .
 標準英語の逆を行くこれらの変種の文法もある意味では合理的といえる.主語が単数であれば主語の名詞にも述語の動詞にも -s が現われず,主語が複数であればいずれにも -s が付加されるという点で一貫しているからだ.Methrie and Bhatt (66) は,この体系を "-s plural symmetry" と呼んでいる.
 ただし,"-s plural symmetry" を示す変種は inherent variety なのか,あるいは話者個人が標準英語などを目標として過剰修正 (hypercorrection) した結果の付帯現象なのかは,今後の調査を待たなければならない.また,これらの変種が,北部イングランドの歴史的な Northern Present Tense Rule (nptr) と歴史的因果関係があるのかどうかも慎重に検討しなければならないだろう.

 ・ Mesthrie, Rajend and Rakesh M. Bhatt. World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge: CUP, 2008.

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2018-11-24 Sat

#3498. hybrid Englishes [world_englishes][new_englishes][variety][sociolinguistics][terminology]

 現在,世界中で現地化した○○英語が用いられており,これらは総称して "Englishes" と呼ばれている.Franglais, Singlish, Taglish などの名前で知られているものも多く,"nativized Englishes" あるいは "hybrid Englishes" とも言われる.しかし,"nativized Englishes" と "hybrid Englishes" という2つの呼称の間には,微妙なニュアンスの違いがある.Gramley (360) は "hybrid Englishes" について,次のように解説している.

Hybrid Englishes are forms of the language noticeably influenced by a non-English language. Examples include Franglais (French with English additions), Spanglish (ditto for Spanish), Singlish (Singapore English --- with substrate enrichment), TexMex (English with Spanish elements), Mix-Mix (Tagalog/Pilipino English), which may be more English (Engalog) or more Tagalog (Taglish). Such Englishes do not have the extreme structural change typical of pidgins and creoles. Rather, the non-English aspect of these hybrids depends on local systems of pronunciation and vocabulary. Marginally, they will also include structural change. The are likely, in any case, to be difficult for people to understand who are unfamiliar with both languages. In essence hybrid forms are not really different from the nativized Englishes . . .; the justification for a separate term may best be seen in the fact that hybrids are the result of covert norms while nativized Englishes are potentially to be seen on a par with StE.

 "nativized Englishes" と "hybrid Englishes" は本質的には同じものを指すと考えてよいが,前者は当該社会において標準英語と同じ,あるいはそれに準ずる価値をもつとみなされている変種を含意するのに対して,後者はそのような価値をもたない変種を含意する.「#1255. "New Englishes" のライフサイクル」 ([2012-10-03-1]) や「#2472. アフリカの英語圏」 ([2016-02-02-1]) で使った用語でいえば,前者は endonormative な変種を,後者は exonormative な変種を指すといってよい.あるいは,前者は威信と結びつけられる overt norms の結果であり,後者は団結と結びつけられる covert norms の結果であるともいえる.また,この差異は,書き言葉標準英語(いわゆる Standard English) と話し言葉標準英語(いわゆる General English) の違いとも平行的であるように思われる.

 ・ Gramley, Stephan. The History of English: An Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge, 2012.

Referrer (Inside): [2018-11-25-1]

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2018-11-20 Tue

#3494. 英語史における書き言葉と話言葉の標準化を視覚化 [standardisation][historiography][speech][writing][world_englishes]

 英語の書き言葉の標準化を荒っぽくグラフ化すると,「#3237. 標準化サイクル」 ([2018-03-08-1]) で示したようなものになる.今回は「#3458. 標準口語英語の確立」 ([2018-10-15-1]) に基づいて,英語の話し言葉の標準化にも注意を払いながら,両メディアにおける標準化を視覚化してみた.要は前のグラフの改訂増補版.

Standardisation Cycle of English, Vers. 2

 話し言葉は,英語史を通じて常に多様であった.しかし,一方で「#3458. 標準口語英語の確立」 ([2018-10-15-1]) でみたように,標準的な話し言葉を指向する動きが16世紀から現われてきたのも事実であり,これは下向きに折れて分かれていく点線で表現してみた(グラフの「標準化を目指す話し言葉」).しかし,後期近代にかけて英語が世界展開していくにつれて,この「標準的な話し言葉」すらも "World Englishes" とされる幾多の○○英語へと分化してきている事実があり,それを表現するのに,上昇する点線を派生させてみた(グラフの「脱標準化する話し言葉」).
 細かくいえば,このグラフにもいろいろと細工を入れたいところだが,要するに英語の歴史が標準化 (standardisation) と脱標準化 (destandardisation) の狭間で「標準化サイクル」を繰り返してきたという点が重要である.

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2018-03-20 Tue

#3249. The Falkland Islands [variety][world_englishes][history][map][rhotic]

 標題の the Falkland Islands (フォークランド諸島; Falklands とも) といえば,1982年のフォークランド紛争が想起される.南大西洋上,南米大陸から480キロほど東の沖合に浮かぶこの諸島はイギリスの植民地だが,歴史的に領有権を主張するアルゼンチンがこの年に軍事的侵入を試みたことに発する国際紛争である.イギリスはサッチャー首相のもとでアルゼンチンと国交断絶した上で,大艦隊をもって報復し,アルゼンチン軍を一掃した.イギリス国民は大国意識をくすぐられたかのごとく狂喜し,西側諸国も概ねイギリスを支持したが,大英帝国の時代を懐かしむかのような時代錯誤感が否めず,その後の世論は必ずしもイギリスにとって芳しくない.両サイドに数百人の死者が出た事件だった.

Map of the Falkland Islands

 フォークランド諸島の地理と歴史を覗いてみよう.諸島には West Falkland と East Falkland の2つの主たる島がある.ここにイギリス系住民が2100人ほど住んでいる.1690年,イギリスの船長 John Strong が諸島に上陸したとの記録が残っている.島名は,この Strong 船長が Viscount Falkland にちなんで名付けたものだという.しかし,1765年に最初の居住地を建設したのは de Bougainville に率いられたフランス人たちであり,イギリス人居住地の建設はそれから1年遅れた.1767年にはスペインがフランス居住地を購入し,その後一時的にイギリス人を追い払ったが,イギリス人は統治権を手放したわけではなかった.1811年,今度はスペイン居住地が撤退することとなった.
 その後,1816年にスペインから独立を果たしたアルゼンチンが,1820年にフォークランド諸島の領有権を宣言した(アルゼンチンでは諸島を Las Islas Malvinas と呼んでいる.これは,島を訪れた Saint-Malo 出身のブルトン人漁師にちなんでフランス語 Les îles Malouines と名付けられたもののスペイン語名である).しかし,1831年にアメリカの軍艦が East Falkland のアルゼンチン居住地を攻撃し,1833年にはイギリス軍も介入してアルゼンチンの役人を追い払った.1841年,イギリスはフォークランド諸島総督を任命し,1885年までに2つの島で1800人ほどのイギリス人社会を作り上げた.そして,1892年にイギリス植民地となった.
 以降,首都である East Falkland の Port Stanley では,オーストラリアやニュージーランドの英語といくぶん似通った英語変種が発達してきた.互いに深い接触があったとは思えないが,羊毛刈り労働者がオーストラリア,ニュージーランド,フォークランド諸島のあいだを往復していたという事実があり,これらの方言混交の結果として互いの英語変種に似ている部分が見られるということかもしれない.また,West Falkland の個々の村落で話される変種は,先祖の出身地であるイギリスの特定の地方方言と結びつけられるという.なお,フォークランド諸島の変種では non-prevocalic r に関しては non-rhotic である.
 以上,Trudgill and Hannah (123--24) および McArthur (397) の記述に依拠して書いた.CIA: The World Factbook による Falkland IslandsEthnologue による Falkland Islands も参照.

 ・ McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: OUP, 1992.
 ・ Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English. 5th ed. London: Hodder Education, 2008.

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2018-01-30 Tue

#3200. 後期近代英語期の主要な出来事の年表 [timeline][history][lmode][chronology][world_englishes][linguistic_imperialism]

 Algeo and Pyles の英語史年表シリーズのシメとなる第4弾は,後期近代英語期 (201--02) .著者たちのいう Late Modern English は,1800年以降の英語を指している.これより前の時代の年表は,「#3193. 古英語期の主要な出来事の年表」 ([2018-01-23-1]),「#3196. 中英語期の主要な出来事の年表」 ([2018-01-26-1]),「#3197. 初期近代英語期の主要な出来事の年表」 ([2018-01-27-1]) を参照.

1805A victory over the French at the battle of Trafalgar established British naval supremacy.
1806The British occupied Cape Colony in South Africa, preparing the way for the arrival in 1820 of a large number of British settlers.
1828Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language was published.
1840In New Zealand, by the Treaty of Waitangi, native Maori ceded sovereignty to the British crown.
1857A proposal at the Philological Society of London led to work that resulted in the New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (1928), reissued as the Oxford English Dictionary (1933).
1858The Government of India Act transferred power from the East India Company to the crown, thus creating the British Raj in India.
1861--5The American Civil War established the indissolubility of the Union and abolished slavery in America.
1898The four-month Spanish-American War resulted in the United States becoming a world power with overseas possessions and thus a major participant in international politics.
1906The first radio broadcast, leading in 1920 to the first American commercial radio station in Pittsburgh.
1914--8World War I created an alliance between the United States and the United Kingdom.
1922The British Broadcasting Company (after 1927, Corporation) was established and became a major conveyor of information in English around the world.
1927The first motion picture with spoken dialog, The Jazz Singer, was released.
1936The first high-definition television service was established by the BBC, to be followed by cable service in the early 1950s and satellite service in the early 1960s.
1939--45World War II further solidified the British-American link.
1945The charter of the United Nations was produced at San Francisco.
1947British India was divided into India and Pakistan, and both became independent.
1952The Secretariat building of the United Nations was constructed in Manhattan.
1961The Merriam Webster's Third New International Dictionary was published.
1983The Internet was created.
1991The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was dissolved, leaving the United States as the world's only superpower.
1992The first Web browser for the World Wide Web was released.

 年表をざっと眺めるだけでも,この時期に英語が世界へ拡大していく様子がわかる.拡大といっても地理的な側面に限らない.話者人口という側面においても拡大したし,使用される状況や場面の範囲,すなわち機能的にも拡大した.Algeo and Pyles (201) の記述が的を射ている.

The history of English since 1800 has been a story of expansion---in geography, in speakers, and in the purposes for which English is used. Geographically, English has been spread around the world, first by British colonization and empire-building, and more recently by the prominence of America in world affairs. The number of its speakers has undergone a population explosion, not alone of native speakers but also of nonnative speakers of English as an additional language. And the uses to which English is put have ramified with the growth of science, technology, and commerce.


 ・ Algeo, John, and Thomas Pyles. The Origins and Development of the English Language. 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

Referrer (Inside): [2018-02-04-1]

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2017-12-17 Sun

#3156. 「大英帝国の拡大と英語」のまとめ [slide][new_englishes][world_englishes][model_of_englishes][variety][history][link][timeline][standardisation][prescriptive_grammar][prescriptivism][asacul]

 大英帝国の拡大という世界史的展開は,現代英語と英語の未来を論じる上で避けて通ることのできないトピックです.その英語史上の意義について,スライド (HTML) にまとめてみました.こちらからどうぞ.結論としては次のように述べました.

 (1) 英語の標準化・規範化を後押しして,英語に「求心力」をもたらした一方で,
 (2) 英語の多様化を招き,英語に「遠心力」をもたらし,


 1. 大英帝国の拡大と英語
 2. 要点
 3. (1) 大英帝国の発展
 4. 関連年表 (#777, #1377, #2562)
 5. (2) 英語の求心力 --- 標準化・規範化
 6. 標準化と規範化
 7. 18世紀の規範主義
 8. 辞書,文法書,発音指南書
 9. 規範文法の例
 10. (3) 英語の遠心力 --- 世界の様々な英語
 11. 様々な英語変種の例
 12. 英語変種の諸分類法
 13. 21世紀,求心力と遠心力のせめぎ合い
 14. まとめ
 15. 参考文献

 他の「まとめスライド」として,「#3058. 「英語史における黒死病の意義」のまとめスライド」 ([2017-09-10-1]),「#3068. 「宗教改革と英語史」のまとめスライド」 ([2017-09-20-1]),「#3089. 「アメリカ独立戦争と英語」のまとめスライド」 ([2017-10-11-1]),「#3102. 「キリスト教伝来と英語」のまとめスライド」 ([2017-10-24-1]),「#3107. 「ノルマン征服と英語」のまとめスライド」 ([2017-10-29-1]),「#3121. 「印刷術の発明と英語」のまとめ」 ([2017-11-12-1]) もどうぞ.

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2017-07-29 Sat

#3015. 後期近代英語への関心の高まり (2) [lmode][history_of_linguistics][language_change][sociolinguistics][gender][world_englishes][variety]

 「#2993. 後期近代英語への関心の高まり」 ([2017-07-07-1]) で,近年,後期近代英語期の研究が盛り上がってきていることに触れた.その理由は様々に説明できるように思われるが,Kytö et al. (4--5) の指摘している4点に耳を傾けよう.19世紀の英語が研究に値する理由として,先の記事で触れたものと合わせて確認しておきたい.

 (1) 19世紀中に識字率が上がったことにより,多種多様なテキストが豊富に生み出された.とりわけ性差と言語変化の関係がよく調査できるようになった.
 (2) Brown Family のような現代英語のコーパスによる研究の成果として,数十年ほどの短期間における言語変化に注目が集まった.ここから,後期近代英語期の社会的・政治的な出来事と,当時の言語変化の関係を探る研究が試みられるようになった.
 (3) この時期にジャンルの広がりが見られた.特に,私信,新聞,小説,科学の言説など,現代にかけて重要性を増すことになる諸ジャンルが開拓された時期として重要である.
 (4) 19世紀は,イギリス以外の英語変種の多くにとって形成期に相当する.


 ・ Kytö, Merja, Mats Rydén, and Erik Smitterberg. "Introduction: Exploring Nineteenth-Century English --- Past and Present Perspective." Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change. Ed. Merja Kytö, Mats Rydén, and Erik Smitterberg. Cambridge: CUP, 2006. 1--16.

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2017-07-03 Mon

#2989. 英語が一枚岩ではないのは過去も現在も同じ [variety][world_englishes][model_of_englishes][purism][standardisation][hel_education]

 英語に作用する求心力と遠心力の問題(cf. 「#2073. 現代の言語変種に作用する求心力と遠心力」 ([2014-12-30-1]))を議論する際には,英語史の知識がおおいに役立つ.英語の歴史において,英語は常に複数形の Englishes だったのであり,単数形 English の発想が生まれたのは,近代以降に標準化 (standardisation) という社会言語学的なプロセスが生じてから後のことである.そして,その近代以降ですら,実際には諸変種は存在し続けたし,むしろ英語が世界中に拡散するにつれて変種が著しく増加してきた.その意味において,English とはある種の虚構であり,英語の実態は過去も現在も Englishes だったのである.
 では,21世紀の英語,未来の英語についてはどうだろうか.求心力と遠心力がともに働いていくとおぼしき21世紀において,私たちは English を語るべきなのか,Englishes を語るべきなのか.この問題を議論するにあたって,Gooden (230--31) の文章を引こう.

   After undergoing many changes at the hands of the Angles and Saxons, the Norman French, and a host of other important but lesser influences, English itself has now spread to become the world's first super-language. While this is a process that may be gratifying to native speakers in Britain, North America, Australia and elsewhere, it is also one that raises certain anxieties. The language is no longer 'ours' but everybody's. The centre of gravity has shifted. Until well into the 19th century it was firmly in Britain. Then, as foreseen by the second US president John Adams ('English is destined to be in the next and succeeding centuries [ . . . ] the language of the world'), the centre shifted to America. Now there is no centre, or at least not one that is readily acknowledged as such.
   English is emerging in pidgin forms such as Singlish which may be scarcely recognizable to non-users. Even the abbreviated, technical and idiosyncratic forms of the language employed in, say, air-traffic control or texting may be perceived as a threat to some idea of linguistic purity.
   If these new forms of non-standard English are a threat, then they are merely the latest in a centuries-long line of threats to linguistic integrity. What were the feelings of the successive inhabitants of the British Isles as armies, marauders and settlers arrived in the thousand years that followed the first landing by Julius Caesar? History does not often record them, although we know that, say, the Anglo-Saxons were deeply troubled by the Viking incursions which began in the north towards the end of the eighth century. Among their responses would surely have been a fear of 'foreign' tongues, and a later resistance to having to learn the vocabulary and constructions of outsiders. Yet many new words and structures were absorbed, just as the outsiders, whether Viking or Norman French, assimilated much of the language already used by the occupants of the country they had overrun or settled.
   With hindsight we can see what those who lived through each upheaval could not see, that each fresh wave of arrivals has helped to develop the English language as it is today. Similarly, the language will develop in the future in ways that cannot be foreseen, let alone controlled. It will change both internally, as it were, among native speakers, and externally at the hands of the millions in Asia and elsewhere who are already adopting it for their own use.

 ここでは言語的純粋性 (linguistic purity; purism) についても触れられているが,いったい正統な英語というものは,単数形で表現される English というものは,存在するのだろうか.存在するとすれば,具体的に何を指すのだろうか.あるいは,存在しないとすれば,「英語」とは諸変種の集合体につけられた抽象的な名前にすぎず,意味上は Englishes に相当する集合名詞に等しいのだろうか.
 これは英語の現在と未来を論じるにあたって,実にエキサイティングな論題である.「#2986. 世界における英語使用のジレンマ」 ([2017-06-30-1]) の問題と合わせて,ディスカッション用に.

 ・ Gooden, Philip. The Story of English: How the English Language Conquered the World. London: Quercus, 2009.

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2017-06-30 Fri

#2986. 世界における英語使用のジレンマ [world_englishes][lingua_franca][linguistic_imperialism][elf][new_englishes][variety]

 日本の文化や歴史などを世界に伝えたりアピールしたりする際に,媒介として英語を用いるべきだという発想は,今や特別ではない.国家や民族のアイデンティティに関する事柄を,英語のような lingua_franca を用いて世界に発信することは,日本では当然のこと,推奨すべきことと考えられている.
 Crystal (279--80) より,このジレンマとその克服法を巡る論争の本質について述べられている箇所を引こう.

The problem is greatest for poets, novelists, and dramatists in the newly independent nations, where there is often considerable antagonism towards English, seen as a symbol of colonial oppression. The dilemma is acute. Should they use the 'enemy's' language, with all the alien awkwardness that comes with the use of a second language for literary expression, in order to achieve an international audience? Or should they use their mother tongue, for which they have an immediate sensitivity, but which will place severe constraints on their potential readership? The solution, many writers maintain, is to concentrate on developing the English of their own region, making it into a language which belongs to them, and with which they can identify. 'Our method of expression', wrote the Indian author Raja Rao, 'has to be a dialect which will some day prove to be as distinctive and colorful as the Irish or the American . . . The tempo of Indian life must be infused into our English expression.' And the call for new Englishes, personal, evocative, and dynamic, has been echoed by second-language writers around the world, in South-east Asia, East and West Africa, and by first-language writers in Jamaica, South Africa, and New Zealand.

 議論のきっかけとして,インド人の詩人 Kamala Das の実用主義的な英語観を覗いてみよう (Crystal 280) .

. . . I am Indian, very brown, born in
Malabar, I speak three languages, write in
Two, dream in one. Don't write in English, they said,
English is not your mother-tongue. Why not leave
Me alone, critics, friends, visiting cousins,
Every one of you? Why not let me speak in
Any language I like? The language I speak
Becomes mine, its distortions, its queernesses
All mine, mine alone. It is half English, half
Indian, funny perhaps, but it is honest.
It is as human as I am human, don't
You see? It voices my joys, my longings, my
Hopes, and it is useful to me as cawing
Is to crows or roaring to the lions . . .
                    The Old Playhouse and Other Poems (1973)


 ・ Crystal, David. The English Language. 2nd ed. London: Penguin, 2002.

Referrer (Inside): [2017-07-03-1]

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2017-06-07 Wed

#2963. Palmerston English [esl][world_englishes][map][variety][history]

 ニュージーランドの北東約3000kmに浮かぶクック諸島 (Cook Islands) は,ニュージーランドと自由連合を組む自治国である.国名は,Captain Cook が1773年にこの諸島に上陸したことにちなむ.1888年にイギリスの属領となった後,1901年にはニュージーランドの属領へ移行し,1965年に内政自治権を獲得した.1万7千人程度の人口があり,その8割程度がポリネシア系のクック諸島マオリ族である.クック諸島マオリ語と英語がともに公用語となっている.以下,地図を掲載(広域図は「#2215. Niue,英語を公用語としてもつ最小の国(最新版)」 ([2015-05-21-1]) を参照).

Map of Cook Islands

 首都 Avarua のある Rarotonga 島の北西400kmほどのところに,Palmerston Island という島が浮かんでいる.ここでは,成立過程のよく知られている Palmerston English と呼ばれる英語変種が話されている.Trudgill (100) の記述を借りよう.

Palmerston English is spoken on Palmerston Island (Polynesian Avarau), a coral atoll in the Cook Islands about 250 miles northwest of Rarotonga, by descendants of Cook Island Maori and English speakers. William Marsters, a ship's carpenter and cooper from Gloucestershire, England, came to uninhabited Palmerston Atoll in 1962. He had three wives, all from Penrhyn/Tongareva in the Northern Cook Islands. He forced his wives, seventeen children and numerous children to use English all the time. Virtually the entire population of the island today descends from the patriarch. Palmerston English has some admixture from Polynesian but is probably best regarded as a dialectal variety of English rather than a contact language.

 その他,クック諸島の基本情報は,CIA: The World Factbook による Cook Islands外務省のクック諸島基礎データを参照.

 ・ Trudgill, Peter. A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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2017-04-25 Tue

#2920. Gibraltar English [world_englishes][variety][history][spanish][hebrew]

 Gibraltar は,スペインの南西岸,地中海と大西洋が出会うジブラルタル海峡 (the Strait of Gibraltar) を臨む半島である.イギリスの海外領であり,軍事基地となっている.芦ノ湖とほぼ同じ6.8平方キロメートルの面積に約3万人がほど住んでおり,その3分の1がイギリス人(主として軍事関係者),3分の2が南ヨーロッパ,北アフリカ,イギリスの混合ルーツをもつ人々である.住民の大多数が英語を母語としており,「#177. ENL, ESL, EFL の地域のリスト」 ([2009-10-21-1]) でも示したように,ENL (English as a Native Language) 地域に数えられる.ただし,英語を公用語としているものの,スペイン語も広く話され,ほとんどの人々がバイリンガルである.

Map of Gibraltar

 ジブラルタル英語は,RP の発音をもつ標準イギリス英語であり,non-rhotic である.しかし,労働者の話す変種はスペイン語の影響を受けており,例えば語頭の /s/ の前に母音が挿入されて espoon (for spoon), estreet (for street) のように発音される (McArthur 440--41) .スペイン語のほか,イタリア語ジェノバ方言やヘブライ語からの影響も混じっており,その英語変種は Yanito (Llanito) と呼ばれることもある.

 ・ McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: OUP, 1992.

Referrer (Inside): [2019-03-08-1]

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2017-01-17 Tue

#2822. cross-linguistic influence [world_englishes][variety][language_contact][sla][terminology][sociolinguistics][language_contact]

 「英語が○○語から影響を受けた」あるいは「英語が○○語に影響を与えた」という話題は,英語史でもよく話題とされる.しかし,「英語」も様々な変種の集合体であり,かつ「○○語」も1言語に限定されるわけではなく,無数の言語を指すと考えると,その影響関係は極めて複雑なネットワークとなるだろう.Baugh and Cable によると,このような影響関係は "cross-linguistic influence" (400) と呼ばれる.その実体は多角的で動的であるため,あまり研究も進んでいないようだが,今後の世界の言語状況,特に言語学習を巡る状況を理解する上で,非常に重要な概念となっていくのではないか.Baugh and Cable (400) は,これからの領域として注目している.

In projections of the future status of global languages, there has been little discussion of the reciprocal reinforcement that some of the major languages of the world give to each other---or what is known as "cross-linguistic influence." Spanish and Portuguese in Latin America, for example, indirectly boost the fortunes of English, or at least of English as a proficiently acquired foreign language, in comparison to languages that are less closely related to these Indo-European languages historically and typologically. Similarly, in the opposite direction there is a cross-linguistic influence of English on the learning of Spanish in the United States: knowledge of Spanish is diffused among many native English speakers in Texas in a way that Chinese in Northern California is not. One reason that research and discussion are lacking is that, until recently, most of the scholarship in foreign-language learning has concentrated on the differences between two languages rather than the similarities, with an emphasis on "interference."

 この辺りは,第2言語習得の研究と広い意味での英語史(あるいは歴史社会英語学)と接点となる可能性が高い.もちろん,ほかにも code-switching や借用の研究などの言語接触論や,広く英語教育の議論にも関連してくると思われる.
 英語史の名著の第6版にて,Baugh and Cable が最後に近い節で上のような "cross-linguistic influence" に言及していることは示唆的である.英語史は,21世紀の新しい英語学(より広く「英語の学」)を下から支える,頼りになる土台として,重要なポジションにある.
 上の引用にあるラテン・アメリカにおける英語については,「#2610. ラテンアメリカ系英語変種」 ([2016-06-19-1]) も要参照.

 ・ Baugh, Albert C. and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 6th ed. London: Routledge, 2013.

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2016-12-26 Mon

#2800. 学ぶべき英語変種は何か [elt][variety][ame][bre][americanisation][wsse][world_englishes][model_of_englishses]

 日本の英語教育では,アメリカ英語が主流となっている.20世紀後半からはアメリカの国力を背景に,世界的にもアメリカ英語の影響力が増し,アメリカ英語化 (americanisation) が進行してきたことは疑いえない(「#851. イギリス英語に対するアメリカ英語の影響は第2次世界大戦から」 ([2011-08-26-1]) を参照).しかし,一方で歴史的に培われてきた世界におけるイギリス英語の伝統も根強く,「#376. 世界における英語の広がりを地図でみる」 ([2010-05-08-1]) の地図でみたように,その効果はいまだ広範にして顕在である.
 このように,米英2大変種はしばしば対立して示されるが,今後発展していくと想定される英語の世界標準,いわゆる "World Standard (Spoken) English" (wsse) が,米英2大変種のいずれかに一致するということはないだろう.勢いのあるアメリカ英語がその中心となっていくだろうとは予想されるが,あくまでその基盤となるだろうということであり,その上に様々な独立変種あるいは混合変種の要素が加えられ,全体として混交・中和した新たな変種へと発展していくと予想される(関連して,「#426. 英語変種のピラミッドモデル」 ([2010-06-27-1]),「#1010. 英語の英米差について Martinet からの一言」 ([2012-02-01-1]) などの記事を参照).
 上の提案の妥当性を判断するのに,世界における英語使用の展望を要約した Baugh and Cable (394) の文章が参考になる.

The global context of English . . . makes the traditional categories [= American English and British English] more problematic and the choices more complex than they were previously perceived to be. American English may be the most prominent source of emerging global English, and yet it will be American English derancinated and adapted in a utilitarian way to the needs of speakers whose geography and culture are quite different. To the extent that Americans think about the global use of English at all, it is often as a possession that is lent on sufferance to foreigners, who often fail to get it right. Such a parochial attitude will change as more Americans become involved in the global economy and as they become more familiar with the high quality of literature being produced in post colonial settings. Many earlier attacks on American English were prompted by the slang, colloquialisms, and linguistic novelties of popular fiction and journalism, just as recent criticism has been directed at jargon in the speech and writings of American government officials, journalists, and social scientists. Along with the good use of English there is always much that is indifferent or frankly bad, but the language of a whole country should not be judged by its least graceful examples. Generalizations about the use of English throughout a region or a culture are more likely to mislead than to inform, and questions that lead to such generalizations are among the least helpful to ask. In the United States, as in Britain, India, Ghana, and the Philippines, in Australia and Jamaica, one can find plentiful samples of English that deserve a low estimate, but one will find a language that has adapted to the local conditions, usually without looking over its shoulder to the standards of a far-away country, and in so adapting has become the rich medium for writers and speakers of great talent and some of genius.


 ・ Baugh, Albert C. and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 6th ed. London: Routledge, 2013.

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2016-08-21 Sun

#2673. 「現代世界における英語の重要性は世界中の人々にとっての有用性にこそある」 [language_myth][sociolinguistics][world_englishes]

 Algeo and Pyles (224) から同趣旨の主張を引用しよう.世界の英語変種を見渡した後,締めくくりの段落で次のように述べている.

What, then, it may be asked, is the English language? Is it the speech of London, of Boston, of New York, of Atlanta, of Melbourne, of Montreal, of Calcutta? Is it the English of the metropolitan daily newspaper, of the bureaucratic memo, of the contemporary poet, of religious ritual, of football sportscasts, of political harangues, of loving whispers? A possible answer might be, none of these, but rather the sum of them all, along with all other blendings and developments that have taken place wherever what is thought of as the English language is spoken by those who have learned it as their mother tongue or as an additional language. However, the most important variety happens to be the standard English written by British and American authors---and it should be clear by now that the importance of that language is due not to any inherent virtues it may possess, but wholly to its usefulness to people around the world, whatever their native language.

 この主張は以下の記事で繰り返してきたので,是非そちらも参照されたい.「#1072. 英語は言語として特にすぐれているわけではない」 ([2012-04-03-1]),「#1082. なぜ英語は世界語となったか (1)」 ([2012-04-13-1]),「#1083. なぜ英語は世界語となったか (2)」 ([2012-04-14-1]),「#1607. 英語教育の政治的側面」 ([2013-09-20-1]),「#1788. 超民族語の出現と拡大に関与する状況と要因」 ([2014-03-20-1]),「#2487. ある言語の重要性とは,その社会的な力のことである」 ([2016-02-17-1]) .

 ・ Algeo, John, and Thomas Pyles. The Origins and Development of the English Language. 5th ed. Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

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2016-08-16 Tue

#2668. 現代世界の英語変種を理解するための英語方言史と英語比較社会言語学 [dialectology][dialect][world_englishes][variety][aave][ame_bre][language_change]

 現在,世界中に様々な英語変種 (world_englishes) が分布している.各々の言語特徴は独特であり,互いの異なり方も多種多様で,「英語」として一括りにしようとしても難しいほどだ.標準的なイギリス英語とアメリカ英語どうしを比べても,言語項によってその違いが何によるものなのかを同定するのは,たやすくない(「#627. 2変種間の通時比較によって得られる言語的差異の類型論」 ([2011-01-14-1]),「#628. 2変種間の通時比較によって得られる言語的差異の類型論 (2)」 ([2011-01-15-1]) を参照).
 Tagliamonte は,世界の英語変種間の関係をつなぎ合わせるミッシング・リンクは,イギリス諸島の周辺部の諸変種とその歴史にあると主張し,序章 (p. 3) で次のように述べている.

It is fascinating to consider why the many varieties of English around the world are so different. Part of the answer to this question is their varying local circumstances, the other languages that they have come into contact with and the unique cultures and ecologies in which they subsequently evolved. However, another is the historically embedded explanation that comes from tracing their roots back to their origins in the British Isles. Indeed, leading scholars have argued that the study of British dialects is critical to disentangling the history and development of varieties of English everywhere in the world . . . .

 Tagliamonte が言わんとしていることは,例えば次のようなことだろう.イギリスの主流派変種とアメリカの主流派変種を並べて互いの言語的差異を取り出し,それを各変種の歴史の知識により説明しようとしても,すべてを説明しきれるわけではない.しかし,視点を変えてイギリスあるいはアメリカの非主流派変種もいくつか含めて横並びに整理し,その歴史の知識とともに言語的異同を取れば,互いの変種を結びつけるミッシング・リンクが補われる可能性がある.例えば,現在のロンドンの英語をいくら探しても見つからないヒントが,スコットランドの英語とその歴史を視野に入れれば見つかることもあるのではないか.
 Tagliamonte が上で述べているのは,この希望である.この希望をもって,方言の歴史を比較しあう方法論として "comparative sociolinguistics" を提案しているのだ.この「比較社会言語学」に,元祖の比較言語学 (comparative_linguistics) のもつ学術的厳密さを求めることはほぼ不可能といってよいが,1つの野心的な提案として歓迎したい.英語の英米差のような主要な話題ばかりでなく,ピジン英語,クレオール英語,AAVE など世界中の変種の問題にも明るい光を投げかけてくれるだろう.
 本書の最後で,Tagliamonte (213) は英語方言史を称揚し,その明るい未来を謳い上げている.

Dialects are a tremendous resource for understanding the grammatical mechanisms of linguistic change. Dialects are also the storehouse of the heart and soul of culture, history and identity. Delving deep into the nuts and bolts of language, deeper than words and phrases and expressions, down into the grammar, we discover a treasure trove. Beneath the anecdotes and nonce tales are hidden patterns and constraints that are a system unto themselves, reflecting the legacy of regional factions, social groups and human relationships. As language evolves through history, its inner mechanisms are evolving, but not in the same way in every place nor at the same rate in all circumstances --- it will always mirror its own ecology.

 ・ Tagliamonte, Sali A. Roots of English: Exploring the History of Dialects. Cambridge: CUP, 2013.

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2016-06-19 Sun

#2610. ラテンアメリカ系英語変種 [world_englishes][new_englishes][variety][demography][substratum_theory][aave]

 近年,英語諸変種への関心が高く,本ブログでも world_englishesnew_englishes というタグのもとで, 世界中の様々な変種の話題に触れてきた.今回は,Bayley による "Latino Varieties of English" と題する論文(というよりは紹介記事)に従って,アメリカにおけるラテンアメリカ系移民とその子孫たちの用いる英語変種 "Latino English" を巡る状況について,簡単に述べよう.
 最新の統計ではないが,2004年の時点で,米国のラテンアメリカ系人口は40,424,000人ほどであり,割合にして全体の14%を占める.その過半数は家庭でスペイン語を用い続けているというが,家庭でも英語のみを話す人口は直近20年ほどの間に着実に増えてきているという.Bayley (522) に引用されている Brodie et al. の2002年の統計によれば,移民世代(第1世代)の成人では主としてスペイン語のみを話す割合が72%で圧倒しているが,第2世代では47%が英語・スペイン語のバイリンガルであり,さらにほぼ同数が主として英語を話すという.第3世代以降になると,第1世代と状況が逆転し,78%が主として英語を用いるとされる.つまり,ラテンアメリカ系アメリカ人の第2世代以降は母語として英語を習得するようになっており,彼らの話す母語変種の英語が "Latino English(es)" と呼ばれるのである.この変種は,スペイン語を母語とする人が英語を習得する過程で示す interlanguage とは異なることに注意したい.
 Latino English にも複数の変種が区別されるが,Bayley によれば,この方面の体系的研究はさほど進んでいないという.当面,2つの主たる変種である "Chicano English" と "Puerto Rican English" が参照されている.Chicano English は,主としてカリフォルニアや南西諸州の barrio (ラテンアメリカ系居住区)で聞かれる変種である.Puerto Rican English は主として New York City を含む東海岸で聞かれる.しかし,いずれの変種も,近年ラテンアメリカ系人口がアメリカ中で拡大しているため,上記の地域以外でも聞かれるようになってきている.例えば,Chicago, Georgia, North Carolina などでは,ラテンアメリカ系人口の増加が顕著である.
 これらの変種の言語学的特徴としては,基層言語としてのスペイン語の効果が関与していると考えられるものがあるが,一方で非ラテンアメリカ系英語変種と平行的な特徴も見られ,基層言語からの影響の評価は慎重になされなければならないだろう.むしろ,Puerto Rican English では,習慣的 be の用法,連結詞 (copula) の欠如,3単現の -s の欠如に関して,AAVE からの影響が強いと言われている.
 今後,多種多様なラテンアメリカ系人口が拡大し,移動と接触の機会も増えてくると予想されるが,これらラテンアメリカ系英語諸変種の各々はどのような発展をたどることになるのだろうか.個々バラバラに発達するのか,あるいは1つの "pan-Latino English" と呼べるような統一変種が発達することになるのか.今後の動向を見守りたい.
 関連する話題として「#256. 米国の Hispanification」 ([2010-01-08-1]),「#1657. アメリカの英語公用語化運動」 ([2013-11-09-1]) を参照.

 ・ Bayley, Robert. "Latino Varieties of English." Chapter 51 of A Companion to the History of the English Language. Ed. Haruko Momma and Michael Matto. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. 521--30.

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2016-06-05 Sun

#2596. 「小笠原ことば」の変遷 [japanese][world_englishes][pidgin][creole][creoloid][code-switching][bilingualism][sociolinguistics][contact]

 「#2559. 小笠原群島の英語」 ([2016-04-29-1]) で,かつて小笠原群島で話されていた英語変種を紹介した.この地域の言語事情の歴史は,180年ほどと長くはないものの,非常に複雑である.ロング (134--35) の要約によれば,小笠原諸島で使用されてきた様々な言語変種の総称を「小笠原ことば」と呼ぶことにすると,「小笠原ことば」の歴史的変遷は以下のように想定することができる.
 19世紀にはおそらく「小笠原ピジン英語」が話されており,それが後に母語としての「小笠原準クレオール英語」へと発展した.19世紀末には,日本語諸方言を話す人々が入植し,それらが混淆して一種の「コイネー日本語」が形成された.そして,20世紀に入ると小笠原の英語と日本語が入り交じった,後者を母体言語 (matrix language) とする「小笠原混合言語」が形成されたという.
 しかし,このような変遷は必ずしも文献学的に裏付けられているものではなく,間接的な証拠に基づいて歴史社会言語学的な観点から推測した仮のシナリオである.例えば,第1段階としての「小笠原ピジン英語」が行なわれていたという主張については,ロング (134--35) は次のように述べている.


 同様に,「小笠原準クレオール英語」の発生についても詳細は分かっていないが,両親がピジン英語でコミュニケーションを取っていた家庭が多かったという状況証拠があるため,その子供たちが準クレオール語 (creoloid) を生じさせたと考えることは,それなりの妥当性をもつだろう.しかし,これとて直接の証拠があるわけではない.
 上記の歴史的変遷で最後の段階に相当する「小笠原混合言語」についても,解くべき課題が多く残されている.例えば,なぜ日本語変種と英語変種が2言語併用 (bilingualism) やコードスイッチング (code-switching) にとどまらず,混淆して混合言語となるに至ったのか.そして,なぜその際に日本語変種のほうが母体言語となったのかという問題だ.これらの歴史社会言語学的な問題について,ロング (148--55) が示唆に富む考察を行なっているが,解決にはさらなる研究が必要のようである.
 ロング (155) は,複雑な言語変遷を遂げてきた小笠原諸島の状況を「言語の圧力鍋」と印象的になぞらえている.


 ・ ロング,ダニエル 「他言語接触の歴史社会言語学 小笠原諸島の場合」『歴史社会言語学入門』(高田 博行・渋谷 勝巳・家入 葉子(編著)),大修館,2015年.134--55頁.

Referrer (Inside): [2018-07-02-1] [2017-11-01-1]

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