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最終更新時間: 2019-05-22 10:30

2018-05-27 Sun

#3317. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle にみる Hengest と Horsa [anglo-saxon][oe][literature][popular_passage][oe_text][jute][history]

 449年,Hengest と Horsa というジュート人の兄弟がブリトン人を助けるためにイングランドに渡り,その後むしろイングランドを征服してしまうという事件が起こった.このくだりは,The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle に詳しいが,以下では古英語初学者向けに改編された Smith (158--59) より,関連する古英語[2018-05-31-1]原文箇所を引用する.年代記の449年,455年,457年の記述より抜粋したものである.現代英語訳も付いているので,古英語読解の学習にもどうぞ.(別の関連する記述は「#389. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes の故地と移住先」 ([2010-05-21-1]) および「#2900. 449年,アングロサクソン人によるブリテン島侵略」 ([2017-04-05-1]) を参照.)

Anno 449. Hēr Martiānus and Valentīnus onfēngon rice, and rīcsodon seofon winter. And on hiera dagum Hengest and Horsa, fram Wyrtgeorne gelaþode, Bretta cyninge, gesōton Bretene on þǣm stede þe is genemned Ypwinesflēot, ǣrest Brettum tō fultume, ac hīe eft on hīe fuhton. Se cyning hēt hīe feohtan ongēan Peohtas; and hīe swā dydon, and sīge hæfdon swā hwǣr swā hīe cōmon. Hīe þā sendon tō Angle, and hēton him sendan māran fultum. Þā sendon hīe him māran fultum. Þā cōmon þā menn of þrim mǣgþum Germānie: of Ealdseaxum, of Englum, of Iotum.

455. Hēr Hengest and Horsa fuhton wiþ Wyrtgeorne þǣm cyninge in þǣre stōwe þe is genemned Æglesþrep; and his brōþor Horsan man ofslōg. And æfter þǣm Hengest fēng tō rīce, and Æsc his sunu.

457. Hēr Hengest and Æsc fuhton wiþ Brettas in þǣre stōwe þe is genemned Crecganford, and þǣr ofslōgon fēower þūsend wera. Þā forlēton þā Brettas Centland, and mid micle ege flugon tō Lundenbyrig.


Anno 449. In this year [lit. here] Martianus and Valentinus succeeded to [lit. received] kingship, and ruled seven years. And in their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Vortigern, king of [the] Britons, came to Britain at the place which is called Ebbsfeet, first as a help to [the] Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The king commanded them to fight against [the] Picts; and they did so, and had victory wherever they came. Then they sent to Angeln, and told them to send more help. They then sent to them more help. Then the men came from three tribes in Germany: from [the] Old Saxons, from [the] Angles, from [the] Jutes.

455. In this year Hengest and Horsa fought against Vortigern the king in the place which is called Aylesford; and his brother Horsa was slain [lit. one slew his brother Horsa]. And after that Hengest and Æsc his son succeeded to kingship [lit. Hengest succeeded to kingship, and Æsc his son].

457. In this year Hengest and Æsc fought against [the] Britons in the place which is called Crayford, and there slew four thousand men [lit. of men]. The Britons then abandoned Kent, and with great fear fled to London.


 Hengest と Horsa のブリテン島侵攻については,anglo-saxon の記事のほか,とりわけ以下を参照.

 ・ 「#33. ジュート人の名誉のために」 ([2009-05-31-1])
 ・ 「#389. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes の故地と移住先」 ([2010-05-21-1])
 ・ 「#1013. アングロサクソン人はどこからブリテン島へ渡ったか」 ([2012-02-04-1])
 ・ 「#2353. なぜアングロサクソン人はイングランドをかくも素早く征服し得たのか」 ([2015-10-06-1])
 ・ 「#2443. イングランドにおけるケルト語地名の分布」 ([2016-01-04-1])
 ・ 「#2493. アングル人は押し入って,サクソン人は引き寄せられた?」 ([2016-02-23-1])
 ・ 「#2900. 449年,アングロサクソン人によるブリテン島侵略」 ([2017-04-05-1])
 ・ 「#3094. 449年以前にもゲルマン人はイングランドに存在した」 ([2017-10-16-1])
 ・ 「#3113. アングロサクソン人は本当にイングランドを素早く征服したのか?」 ([2017-11-04-1]) を参照.

 ・ Smith, Jeremy J. Essentials of Early English. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 2005.

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2018-01-29 Mon

#3199. 講座「スペリングでたどる英語の歴史」の第2回「英語初のアルファベット表記 --- 古英語のスペリング」 [slide][spelling][spelling_pronunciation_gap][oe_text][standardisation][runic][alphabet][grapheme][grammatology][punctuation][hel_education][link][asacul]

 「#3139. 講座「スペリングでたどる英語の歴史」のお知らせ」 ([2017-11-30-1]) でお知らせしたように,朝日カルチャーセンター新宿教室で,5回にわたる講座「スペリングでたどる英語の歴史」が始まっています.1月27日(土)に開かれた第2回「英語初のアルファベット表記 --- 古英語のスペリング」で用いたスライド資料を,こちらに上げておきます.
 今回は,アルファベットの系譜を確認しつつ,古英語がどのように表記され綴られいたかを紹介する内容でした.ポイントは以下の3点です.

 ・ 英語の書記はアルファベットの長い歴史の1支流としてある
 ・ 最古の英文はルーン文字で書かれていた
 ・ 発音とスペリングの間には当初から乖離がありつつも,後期古英語には緩い標準化が達成された

 以下,スライドのページごとにリンクを張っておきます.多くのページに,本ブログ内へのさらなるリンクが貼られていますので,リンク集として使えると思います.

   1. 講座『スペリングでたどる英語の歴史』第2回 英語初のアルファベット表記 --- 古英語のスペリング
   2. 要点
   3. (1) アルファベットの起源と発達 (#423)
   4. アルファベットの系統図 (#1849)
   5. アルファベットが子音文字として始まったことの余波
   6. (2) 古英語のルーン文字
   7. 分かち書きの成立
   8. (3) 古英語のローマン・アルファベット使用の特徴
   9. Cædmon's Hymn を読む (#2898)
   10. 当初から存在した発音とスペリングの乖離
   11. 後期古英語の「標準化」
   12. 古英語スペリングの後世への影響
   13. まとめ
   14. 参考文献

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2017-05-04 Thu

#2929. 「創世記」11:1--9 (「バベルの塔」)を7ヴァージョンで読み比べ [bible][popular_passage][hel_education][oe_text][basic_english][popular_passage]

 昨日の記事「#2928. 古英語で「創世記」11:1--9 (「バベルの塔」)を読む」 ([2017-05-03-1]) で「バベルの塔」の古英語版を読んだが,「#1870. 「創世記」2:18--25 を7ヴァージョンで読み比べ」 ([2014-06-10-1]) にならって中英語以降のテキストも含めた7ヴァージョンを並べてみた.(1), (2), (3), (4), (7) の5つは寺澤先生の著書の第8章より,(5), (6) は聖書サイトより持ってきた現代英語版である.

 (1) 1000年頃の古英語訳 Old English Heptateuch より.

Wæs þā ān gereord on eorþan, and heora ealre ān sprǣc. Hī fērdon fram ēastdēle oð þæt hī cōmon tō ānum felde on þām lande Sennar, and þēr wunedon. Ðā cwǣdon hī him betwȳnan, “Vton wyrcean ūs tigelan and ǣlan hī on fȳre.” Witodlīce hī hæfdon tigelan for stān and tyrwan for weall-līm. And cwǣdon, “Cumað and utan wircan ūs āne burh and ǣnne stȳpel swā hēahne ðæt his rōf ātille þā heofonan, and uton mǣrsian ūrne namon, ǣr þan wē bēon tōdǣlede tō eallum landum.” God þā nyþer āstāh, þæt hē gesēga þā burh and þone stȳpel þe Adames sunus getimbroden. God cwæð þā, “Efne þis his ān folc and gereord him ealum, and hī ongunnon þis tō wircenne; ne hī ne geswīcað heora geþōhta, ǣr þan þe hī mid weorce hī gefyllan. Cumað nū eornostlīce and uton niþer āstīgan and heora gereord þēr tōwendon, þæt heora nān ne tōcnāwe his nēxtan stemne.” And God þā hī tōdǣlde swā of þǣre stōwe tō eallum landum, and hī geswicon tō wyrcenne þā buruh. And for þī wæs sēo burh gehāten Babel, for þan þe ðǣr wæs tōdǣled þæt gereord ealre eorþan. God þā hī sende þanon ofer brādnesse ealra eorðan.


 (2) 1388--95年の Wycliffite Bible (Later Version) より.

Forsothe the lond was of o langage, and of the same speche. And whanne thei ȝeden forth fro the eest, they fonden a feeld in the lond of Sennaar, and dwelliden ther ynne. And oon seide to his neiȝbore, "Come ȝe, and make we tiel stonys, and bake we tho with fier," and thei hadden tiel for stonus, and pitche for morter; and seiden, "Come ȝe, and make we to vs a citee and tour, whos hiȝnesse stretche `til to heuene; and make we solempne oure name bifor that we be departid in to alle londis." Forsothe the Lord cam down to se the citee and tour, which the sones of Adam bildiden. And he seide, "Lo! the puple is oon, and o langage is to alle, and thei han bigunne to make this, nethir thei schulen ceesse of her thouȝtis, til thei fillen tho in werk; therfor come ȝe, go we doun, and scheende we there the tunge of hem, that ech man here not the voys of his neiȝbore." And so the Lord departide hem fro that place in to alle londis; and thei cessiden to bielde a cytee. And therfor the name therof was clepid Babel, for the langage of al erthe was confoundide there; and fro thennus the Lord scaterede hem on the face of alle cuntrees.


 (3) 1611年の The Authorised Version (The King James Version)より.

And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speach. And it came to passe as they iourneyed from the East, that they found a plaine in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. And they sayd one to another; Goe to, let vs make bricke, and burne them thorowly. And they had bricke for stone, and slime had they for morter. And they said; Goe to, let vs build vs a city and a tower, whose top may reach vnto heauen, and let vs make vs a name, lest we be scattered abroad vpon the face of the whole earth. And the LORD came downe to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. And the LORD said; Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language: and this they begin to doe: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they haue imagined to doe. Goed to, let vs go downe, and there cōfound their language, that they may not vnderstand one anothers speech. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence, vpon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the Citie. Therefore is the name of it called Babel, because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad vpon the face of all the earth.


 (4) 1989年の The New Revised Standard Version より.

Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. And as they migrated from the east, they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth." The Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which mortals had built. And the Lord said, "Look, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and confuse their language there, so that they will not understand one another's speech." So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. Therefore it was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.


 (5) 基礎語彙のみを用いた Basic English(The Holy Bible --- Bible in Basic English) より.

And all the earth had one language and one tongue. And it came about that in their wandering from the east, they came to a stretch of flat country in the land of Shinar, and there they made their living-place. And they said one to another, Come, let us make bricks, burning them well. And they had bricks for stone, putting them together with sticky earth. And they said, Come, let us make a town, and a tower whose top will go up as high as heaven; and let us make a great name for ourselves, so that we may not be wanderers over the face of the earth. And the Lord came down to see the town and the tower which the children of men were building. And the Lord said, See, they are all one people and have all one language; and this is only the start of what they may do: and now it will not be possible to keep them from any purpose of theirs. Come, let us go down and take away the sense of their language, so that they will not be able to make themselves clear to one another. So the Lord God sent them away into every part of the earth: and they gave up building their town. So it was named Babel, because there the Lord took away the sense of all languages and from there the Lord sent them away over all the face of the earth.


 (6) 平易な米口語訳 Good News Translation (BibleGateway.com) より.

At first, the people of the whole world had only one language and used the same words. As they wandered about in the East, they came to a plain in Babylonia and settled there. They said to one another, "Come on! Let's make bricks and bake them hard." So they had bricks to build with and tar to hold them together. They said, "Now let's build a city with a tower that reaches the sky, so that we can make a name for ourselves and not be scattered all over the earth." Then the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which they had built, and he said, "Now then, these are all one people and they speak one language; this is just the beginning of what they are going to do. Soon they will be able to do anything they want! Let us go down and mix up their language so that they will not understand each other." So the Lord scattered them all over the earth, and they stopped building the city. The city was called Babylon, because there the Lord mixed up the language of all the people, and from there he scattered them all over the earth.


 (7) 新共同訳より.

世界中は同じ言葉を使って,同じように話していた.東の方から移動してきた人々は,シンアルの地に平野を見つけ,そこに住み着いた.彼らは,「れんがを作り,それをよく焼こう」と話し合った.石の代わりにれんがを,しっくいの代わりにアスファルトを用いた.彼らは,「さあ,天まで届く塔のある町を建て,有名になろう.そして,全地に散らされることのないようにしよう」と言った.主は降って来て,人の子らが建てた,塔のあるこの町を見て,言われた.「彼らは一つの民で,皆一つの言葉を話しているから,このようなことをし始めたのだ.これでは,彼らが何を企てても,妨げることはできない.我々は降って行って,直ちに彼らの言葉を混乱させ,互いの言葉が聞き分けられぬようにしてしまおう.」主は彼らをそこから全地に散らされたので,彼らはこの町の建設をやめた.こういうわけで,この町の名はバベルと呼ばれた.主がそこで全地の言葉を混乱(バラル)させ,また,主がそこから彼らを全地に散らされたからである.


 ・ 寺澤 盾 『聖書でたどる英語の歴史』 大修館書店,2013年.

Referrer (Inside): [2017-05-28-1]

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2017-05-03 Wed

#2928. 古英語で「創世記」11:1--9 (「バベルの塔」)を読む [oe_text][bible][tower_of_babel][origin_of_language][hel_education][popular_passage]

 東京都美術館ブリューゲル「バベルの塔」展が開かれている.24年ぶりの来日だそうで,たいへん盛り上がっている.
 「バベルの塔」 (The Tower of Babel) の話は「創世記」11:1--9 に記されている.この世に様々な言語が存在することを「聖書なりに」説明づけた箇所とされ,言語起源論においてもしばしば引き合いに出される,極めて著名なくだりである.
 今回は,「バベルの塔」の古英語の文章を,寺澤盾先生の『聖書でたどる英語の歴史』第8章から,Old English Heptateuch 版によって示そう.

Wæs þā ān gereord on eorþan, and heora ealre ān sprǣc. Hī fērdon fram ēastdēle oð þæt hī cōmon tō ānum felde on þām lande Sennar, and þēr wunedon. Ðā cwǣdon hī him betwȳnan, “Vton wyrcean ūs tigelan and ǣlan hī on fȳre.” Witodlīce hī hæfdon tigelan for stān and tyrwan for weall-līm. And cwǣdon, “Cumað and utan wircan ūs āne burh and ǣnne stȳpel swā hēahne ðæt his rōf ātille þā heofonan, and uton mǣrsian ūrne namon, ǣr þan wē bēon tōdǣlede tō eallum landum.” God þā nyþer āstāh, þæt hē gesēga þā burh and þone stȳpel þe Adames sunus getimbroden. God cwæð þā, “Efne þis his ān folc and gereord him ealum, and hī ongunnon þis tō wircenne; ne hī ne geswīcað heora geþōhta, ǣr þan þe hī mid weorce hī gefyllan. Cumað nū eornostlīce and uton niþer āstīgan and heora gereord þēr tōwendon, þæt heora nān ne tōcnāwe his nēxtan stemne.” And God þā hī tōdǣlde swā of þǣre stōwe tō eallum landum, and hī geswicon tō wyrcenne þā buruh. And for þī wæs sēo burh gehāten Babel, for þan þe ðǣr wæs tōdǣled þæt gereord ealre eorþan. God þā hī sende þanon ofer brādnesse ealra eorðan.


 ・ 寺澤 盾 『聖書でたどる英語の歴史』 大修館書店,2013年.

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2017-04-20 Thu

#2915. Beowulf の冒頭52行 [beowulf][link][oe][literature][popular_passage][oe_text]

 「#2893. Beowulf の冒頭11行」 ([2017-03-29-1]) で挙げた11行では物足りなく思われたので,有名な舟棺葬 (ship burial) の記述も含めた Beowulf 冒頭の52行を引用したい.舟棺葬とは,6--11世紀にスカンディナヴィアとアングロサクソンの文化で見られた高位者の葬法である.
 原文は Jack 版で.現代英語訳は Norton Anthology に収録されているアイルランドのノーベル文学賞受賞詩人 Seamus Heaney の版でお届けする.

OEPDE translation
a-verseb-verse
Hwæt, wē Gār-Denain geārdagum,So. The Spear-Danes in days gone by
þēodcyningaþrym gefrūnon,and the kings who ruled them had courage and greatness.
hū ðā æþelingasellen fremedon.We have heard of those princes' heroic campaigns.
   Oft Scyld Scēfingsceaþena þrēatum,   There was Shield Sheafson, scourge of many tribes,
5monegum mǣgþummeodosetla oftēah,a wrecker of mead-benches, rampaging among foes.
egsode eorl[as],syððan ǣrest wearðThis terror of the hall-troops had come far.
fēasceaft funden;hē þæs frōfre gebād,A foundling to start with, he would flourish later on
wēox under wolcnum,weorðmyndum þāh,as his powers waxed and his worth was proved.
oðþæt him ǣghwylc þ[ǣr]ymbsittendraIn the end each clan on the outlying coasts
10ofer hronrādehȳran scolde,beyond the whale-road had to yield to him
gomban gyldan.Þæt wæs gōd cyning!and begin to pay tribute. That was one good king.
Ðǣm eafera wæsæfter cenned   Afterward a boy-child was born to Shield,
geong in geardum,þone God sendea cub in the yard, a comfort sent
folce tō frōfre;fyrenðearfe ongeatby God to that nation. Hew knew what they had tholed,
15þ[e] hīe ǣr drugonaldor[lē]asethe long times and troubles they'd come through
lange hwīle.Him þæs Līffrēa,without a leader; so the Lord of Life,
wuldres Wealdendworoldāre forgeaf;the glorious Almighty, made this man renowned.
Bēowulf wæs brēme---blǣd wīde sprang---Shield had fathered a famous son:
Scyldes eaferaScedelandum in.Beow's name was known through the north.
20Swā sceal [geong g]umagōde gewyrcean,And a young prince must be prudent like that,
fromum feohgiftumon fæder [bea]rme,giving freely while his father lives
þæt hine on yldeeft gewunigenso that afterward in age when fighting starts
wilgesīþasþonne wīg cume,steadfast companions will stand by him
lēode gelǣsten;lofdǣdum scealand hold the line. Behavior that's admired
25in mǣgþa gehwǣreman geþēon.is the path to power among people everywhere.
   Him ðā Scyld gewāttō gescæphwīle,   Shield was still thriving when his time came
felahrōr fēranon Frēan wǣre.and he crossed over into the Lord's keeping.
Hī hyne þā ætbǣrontō brimes faroðe,His warrior band did what he bade them
swǣse gesīþas,swā hē selfa bæd,when he laid down the law among the Danes:
30þenden wordum wēoldwine Scyldinga;they shouldered him out to the sea's flood,
lēof landfrumalange āhte.the chief they revered who had long ruled them.
Þǣr æt hȳðe stōdhringedstefnaA ring-whorled prow rode in the harbor,
īsig ond ūtfūs,æþelinges fær;ice-clad, outbound, a craft for a prince.
ālēdon þālēofne þēoden,They stretched their beloved lord in his boat,
35bēaga bryttanon bearm scipes,laid out by the mast, amidships,
mǣrne be mæste.Þǣr wæs mādma felathe great ring-giver. Far-fetched treasures
of feorwegum,frætwa gelǣded;were piled upon him, and precious gear.
ne hȳrde ic cȳmlīcorcēol gegyrwanI never heard before of a ship so well furbished
hildewǣpnumond heaðowǣdum,with battle-tackle, bladed weapons
40billum ond byrnum;him on bearme lægand coats of mail. The massed treasure
mādma mænigo,þā him mid scoldonwas loaded on top of him: it would travel far
on flōdes ǣhtfeor gewītan.on out into the ocean's sway.
Nalæs hī hine lǣssanlācum tēodan,They decked his body no less bountifully
þēodgestrēonum,þon þā dydonwith offerings than those first ones did
45þe hine æt frumsceafteforð onsendonwho cast him away when he was a child
ǣnne ofer ȳðeumborwesende.and launched him alone out over the waves.
Þā gȳt hie him āsettonsegen g[yl]denneAnd they set a gold standard up
hēah ofer hēafod,lēton holm beran,high above his head and let him drift
gēafon on gārsecg.Him wæs geōmor sefa,to wind and tide, bewailing him
50murnende mōd.Men ne cunnonand mourning their loss. No man can tell,
secgan tō sōðe,selerǣden[d]e,no wise man in hall or weathered veteran
hæleð under heofenum,hwā þǣm hlæste onfēng.knows for certain who salvaged that load.


 ・ Jack, George, ed. Beowulf: A Student Edition. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.
 ・ Greenblatt, Stephen, ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th ed. New York:: Norton, 2006.

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2017-04-17 Mon

#2912. AElfric's Life of King Oswald [oe][literature][popular_passage][pchron][oe_text]

 Ælfric の説教集の第3弾とされる The Lives of the Saints は,998年までに書かれたとされる.そのなかから Life of King Oswald の冒頭部分をサンプル・テキストとして取り上げよう.King Oswald は633--641年にノーサンブリアを治めた王で,その子孫とともに十字架を篤く崇拝した者として知られている.ルーン文字の刻まれたノーサンブリアの有名な Ruthwell Cross も,そのような十字架崇拝の伝統の所産だろう.
 Ælfric の説教集は多くの写本で現存しているが,以下の Smith 版テキストは,MS London, British Library Cotton Julius E.vii のものである.現代英語訳も付けて示す (Smith 132--33) .

Æfter ðan ðe Augustīnus tō Engla lande becōm, wæs sum æðele cyning, Oswold gehāten, on Norðhumbra lande, gelȳfed swyþe on God. Sē fērde on his iugoðe fram his frēondum and māgum tō Scotlande on sǣ, and þǣr sōna wearð gefullod, and his gefēran samod þe mid him sīðedon. Betwux þām wearð ofslagen Eadwine his ēam, Norðhumbra cynincg, on Crīst gelȳfed, fram Brytta cyninge, Ceadwalla gecīged, and twēgen his æftergengan binnan twām gēarum; and se Ceadwalla slōh and tō sceame tūcode þā Norðhumbran lēode æfter heora hlāfordes fylle, oð þæt Oswold se ēadiga his yfelnysse ādwǣscte. Oswold him cōm tō, and him cēnlīce wið feaht mid lȳtlum werode, ac his gelēafa hine getrymde, and Crīst gefylste tō his fēonda slege. Oswold þā ærǣrde āne rōde sōna Gode tō wurðmynte, ǣr þan þe hē tō ðām gewinne cōme, and clypode tō his gefērum:`Uton feallan tō ðǣre rōde, and þone Ælmihtigan biddan þæt hē ūs āhredde wið þone mōdigan fēond þe ūs āfyllan wile. God sylf wāt geare þæt wē winnað rihtlīce wið þysne rēðan cyning tō āhreddenne ūre lēode.' Hī fēollon þā ealle mid Oswolde cyninge on gebedum; and syþþan on ǣrne mergen ēodon tō þām gefeohte, and gewunnon þǣr sige, swā swā se Eallwealdend heom ūðe for Oswoldes gelēafan; and ālēdon heora fȳnd, þone mōdigan Cedwallan mid his micclan werode, þe wēnde þaet him ne mihte nān werod wiðstandan.


After Augustine came to England, there was a certain noble king, called Oswald, in the land of the Northumbrians, who believed very much in God. He travelled in his youth from his friends and kinsmen to Dalriada ("Scotland in sea"), and there at once was baptised, and his companions also who travelled with him. meanwhile his uncle Edwin, king of the Northumbrians, who believed in Christ, was slain by the king of the Britons, named Ceadwalla, as were two of his successors within two years; and that Ceadwalla slew and humiliated the Northumbrian people after the death of their lord, until Oswald the blessed put an end to his evil-doing. Oswald came to him, and fought with him boldly with a small troop, but his faith strengthened him, and Christ assisted in the slaying of his enemies. Oswald then immediately raised up a cross in honour of God, before he came to the battle, and called to his companions: "Let us kneel to the cross, and pray to the Almighty that he rid us from the proud enemy who wishes to destroy us. God himself knows well that we strive rightly against this cruel king in order to redeem our people." They then all knelt with King Oswald in prayers; and then early on the morrow they went to the fight, and gained victory there, just as the All-powerful granted them because of Oswald's faith; and they laid low their enemies, the proud Ceadwalla with his great troop, who believed that no troop could withstand him.


・ Smith, Jeremy J. Old English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: CUP, 2009.

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2017-04-14 Fri

#2909. Peterborough Chronicle の Early Britain の記述 [oe][literature][popular_passage][pchron][oe_text][pictish]

 何回目かになる,古英語のテキストとその現代英語訳を挙げるシリーズ(oe_text) .今回は,The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle のE写本,いわゆる Peterborough Chronicle からのテキストで,ブリテン島の地理,民族,言語,歴史が述べられている部分を抜粋する.初学者用に綴字の標準化された市川・松浪版 (86--89) より,現代英語訳も合わせて示そう.

Brytene īeȝland is eahta hund mīla lang, and twā hund mīla brād. And hēr sind on þȳs īeȝlande fīf ȝeþēodu: Englisc, and Brytwilisc, and Scyttisc, and Pyhtisc, and Bōclæden. Ǣrest wǣron būend þisses landes Bryttas; þā cōmon of Armenia, and ȝesǣton sūðewearde Brytene ǣrest. Þā ȝelamp hit þæt Pyhtas cōmon sūþan of Scithian, mid langum scipum, nā manigum. And þā cōmon ǣrest on Norþ-Ibernia ūp, and þǣr bǣdon Scottas þæt hīe ðǣr mōsten wunian. Ac hīe noldon him līefan, for ðǣm hīe cwǣdon þæt hīe ne mihten ealle ætgædere ȝewunian þǣr. And þā cwǣdon þā Scottas, `Wē ēow magon þēah hwæðere rǣd ȝelǣran, wē witon ōþer īeȝland hēr bē ēastan, þǣr ȝē magon eardian ȝif ȝē willað, and ȝif hwā ēow wiðstent, wē ēow fultumiað þæt ȝē hit mæȝen ȝegān.'
   ðā fērdon þā Pyhtas, and ȝefērdon þis land norþanweard, and sūþanweard hit hæfdon Bryttas, swā wē ǣr cwǣdon. And þā Pyhtas him ābǣdon wīf æt Scottas, on þā ȝerād þæt hīe ȝecuren hiera cynecynn ā on þā wīfhealfe. Þæt hīe hēoldon swā lange siððan. And þā ȝelamp hit ymbe ȝēara ryne þæt Scotta sum dǣl ȝewāt of Ibernian on Brytene, and þæs landes sumne dǣl ȝeēodon. And wæs hiera heretoga Reoda ȝehāten, from þǣm hie sind ȝenemnode Dǣl Reodi.

The island of Britain is eight hundred miles long, and two hundred miles broad. And here in this island are five languages: English, British, Pictish, and Latin. At first the inhabitants of this island were Britons; they came from Armenia, and first occupied Britain in the south (i.e. the southern part of Britain). Then it happened that the Picts came from the south from Scythia, with warships, not many. And they first landed in North Ireland, and there begged the Scots that they might dwell there. But they (= the Scots) would not allow them, because they said that they could not live there all together. And then the Scots said, `We can, however, give you advice: we know another island to the east from here, where you can dwell, if you wish; and if anyone resists you, we will help you that you may conquer it.'
   Then the Picts went away, and conquered the northern part of this land, and the Britons had the southern part of it, as we have said before. And the Picts asked wives for them from the Scots, on the conditions that they should choose their royal line always on the female side. They kept it for a long time. And it happened then, in the course of years, that some portion of the Scots departed from Ireland to Britain, and conquered some part of the land, And their leader was called Reoda; from him they are named (the people) of Dal Rialda.


・ 市河 三喜,松浪 有 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社,1986年.

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2017-04-11 Tue

#2906. 古英語聖書より「種をまく人の寓話」 [oe][popular_passage][bible][literature][oe_text][hel_education]

 「#2895. 古英語聖書より「岩の上に家を建てる」」 ([2017-03-31-1]) に引き続き,新約聖書を古英語訳で読んでみよう.今回は,同じくよく知られた Matthew 13: 3--8 の「種をまく人の寓話」を紹介する.市川・松浪 (84--86) より,現代英語訳も付して示す.

Sōþlīċe ūt ēode se sāwere his sǣd tō sāwenne. And þā þā hē sēow, sumu hīe fēollon wiþ weȝ, and fuglas cōmon and ǣton þā. Sōþlīċe sumu fēollon on stǣnihte, þǣr hit næfde miċle eorþan, and hrædlīċe ūp sprungon, for þǣm þe hīe næfdon þāre eorþen dēopan; sōþlīċe, ūp sprungenre sunnan, hīe ādrūgodon and forscruncon, for þǣm þe hīe næfdon wyrtruman. Sōþlīċe sumu fēollon on þornas, and þā þornas wēoxon, and forþrysmdon þā. Sumu sōþlīċe fēollon on gōde eorþan, and sealdon wæstm, sum hundfealdne, sum siextiȝfealdne, sum þrītiȝfealdne.


Truly the sower went out to sow his seeds. And while he was sowing, some of them fell along the way, and birds came and ate them. Truly some fell on stony ground where it had not much earth, and quickly sprang up, because they had not any deep earth; truly, the sun (being) risen up, they dried up and shrank up, because they had not roots. Truly some fell on thorns, and the thorns grew, and choked them. Some truly fell on good ground, and gave fruit, some hundredfold, some sixtyfold, (and) some thirtyfold.


・ 市河 三喜,松浪 有 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社,1986年.

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2017-04-07 Fri

#2902. Pope Gregory のキリスト教布教にかける想いとダジャレ [oe][literature][popular_passage][christianity][oe_text][pun]

 古英語末期を代表する散文作家 Ælfric (955--1010) は,標準的な West-Saxon 方言で多くの文章を残した.今回は,Catholic Homilies の第2集に収められた,Pope Gregory のイングランド伝道に対する熱い想いを綴った,有名なテキストを紹介しよう.市川・松浪のエディション (105--10) の POPE GREGORY より,古英語テキストと現代英語訳を示す.

   Þā underȝeat se pāpa þe on ðām tīman þæt apostoliċe setl ȝesæt, hū sē ēadiga Grēgōrius on hālgum mæȝnum ðēonde wæs, and hē ðā hine of ðǣre munuclican drohtnunge ȝenam, and him tō ȝefylstan ȝesette, on diaconhāde ȝeendebyrdne. Ðā ȝelāmp hit æt sumum sǣle, swā swā ȝȳt foroft dēð, þæt englisce ċȳpmenn brōhton heora ware tō Rōmāna byriȝ, and Gregorius ēode be ðǣre strǣt tō ðām engliscum mannum heora ðing scēawiȝende. Þā ȝeseah hē betwux ðām warum, ċȳpecnihtas ȝesette, þā wǣron hwītes līchaman and fæȝeres andwlitan menn, and æðelīċe ȝefexode.
   Grēgōrius ðā behēold þǣra cnapena wlite, and befrān of hwilċere þēode hī ȝebrohte wǣron. Þā sǣde him man þæt hī of engla lande wǣron, and þæt ðǣre ðēode mennisc swā wlitiȝ wǣre. Eft ðā Grēgōrius befrān, hwæðer þæs landes folc cristen wǣre ðe hǣðen. Him man sǣde þæt hī hǣðene wǣron. Grēgōrius ðā of innweardre heortan langsume siċċetunge tēah, and cwæð: “Wā lā wā, þæt swa fæȝeres hīwes menn sindon ðām sweartan dēofle underðēodde.” Eft hē āxode hū ðǣre ðēode nama wǣre, þe hī of comon. Him wæs ȝeandwyrd þæt hī Angle ȝenemnode wǣron. Þā cwæð hē: “rihtlīċe hī sind Angle ȝehātene, for ðan ðe hī engla wlite habbað, and swilcum ȝedafenað þæt hī on heofonum engla ȝefēran bēon.” Gȳt ðā Grēgōrius befrān, hū ðǣre scīre nama wǣre, þe ðā cnapan of ālǣdde wæron. Him man sǣde þæt ðā scīrmen wǣron Dēre ȝehātene. Grēgōrius andwyrde: “Wel hī sind Dēre ȝehātene. for ðan ðe hī sind fram graman ȝenerode, and tō cristes mildheortnysse ȝecȳȝede.” Gȳt ðā hē befrān: “Hū is ðǣre leode cyning ȝehāten?” Him wæs ȝeandswarod þæt se cyning Ælle ȝehāten wǣre. Hwæt, ðā Grēgōrius gamenode mid his wordum to ðām naman, and cwæð: “Hit ȝedafenað þæt alleluia sȳ ȝesungen on ðām lande. tō lofe þæs ælmihtigan scyppendes.”
   Grēgōrius ðā sōna ēode tō ðām pāpan þæs apostolican setles, and hine bæd þæt hē Angelcynne sume lārēowas āsende, ðe hī to criste ȝebiȝdon, and cwæð þæt hē sylf ȝearo wǣre þæt weorc tō ȝefremmenne mid godes fultume, ȝif hit ðām pāpan swā ȝelīcode. Þā ne mihte sē pāpa þæt ȝeðafian, þeah ðe hē eall wolde, for ðan ðe ðā rōmāniscan ċeasterȝewaran noldon ȝeðafian þæt swā ȝetoȝen mann and swā ȝeðungen lārēow þā burh eallunge forlēte, and swā fyrlen wræcsīð ȝename.

Then perceived the pope who at that time sat on the apostolic seat, how the blessed Gregory was thriving in the holy troops, and he then picked him up from the monastic condition, and made him (his) helper, (being) ordained to deaconhood. Then it happened at one time (= one day), as it yet very often does, that English merchants brought their wares to the city of Rome, and Gregory went along the street to the English men, looking at their things. Then he saw, among the wares, slaves set. They were men of white body and fair face, and excellently haired.
   Gregory then beheld the appearance of those boys, and asked from which country they were brought. Then he was told that they were from England, and that the people of that country were so beautiful. Then again Gregory asked whether the fold of the land was Christian or heathen. They told him that they were heathen. Gregory then drew a long sigh from the depth of (his) heart, and said, 'Alas! that men of so fair appearance are subject to the black devil.' Again he asked how the name of the nation was, where they came from. He was answered that they were named Angles. Then said he, 'rightly they are called Angles, because they have angels' appearance, and it befits such (people) that they should be angels' companions in heavens!' Still Gregory asked how the name of the shire was, from which they were led away. They told him that the shiremen were called Deirians. Gregory answered, 'They are well called Deirians, because they are delivered from ire, and invoked to Christ's mercy.' Still he asked 'How is the king of the people called?' He was answered that the king was called Ælle. What! then Gregory joked with his words to the name, and said, 'It is fitting that Halleluiah be sung in the land, in praise of the Almighty Creator.'
   Then Gregory at once went to the pope of the apostolic seat, and entreated him that he should send some preachers to the English, whom they converted to Christ, and said that he himself was ready to perform the work with God's help, if it so pleased the pope. The pope could not permit it, even if he quite desired (it), because the Roman citizens would not consent that such an educated and competent scholar should leave the city completely and take such a distant journey of peril.


 なお,この逸話の主人公は後の Gregory I だが,テキスト中で示されている pāpa は当時の Pelagius II を指している.この後,さすがに Gregory が自らイングランドに布教に出かけるというわけにはいかなかったので,後に Augustinus (St Augustine) を送り込んだというわけだ.
 この逸話を受けて,渡部とミルワード (50--51) は,英国のキリスト教はダジャレで始まったようなものだと評している.

渡部 若いときにグレゴリーがローマで非常に肌の白い,金髪の奴隷を見ました.で,その奴隷に「おまえはどこから来たのか」ときいたら,「アングル (Angle)」人と答えた.そこでグレゴリーは「おまえはアングル人じゃなくてエンジェル (angel) のようだ」といったというような有名な話があります.
ミルワード そう,有名なシャレです.ですから,ある意味でイギリスのキリスト教史は言葉のシャレから始まると言うことができます.--- Non angli, sed angeli, --- Not Angles, but angels.
渡部 そして,「おまえの国は?」と聞いたら「デイラ (Deira) です」とその奴隷は答えた.すると「〔神の〕怒から (de ira) 救われて,キリストの慈悲に招かれるであろう」とグレゴリーは言ってやった.それから「おまえの王様の名は何か」と聞いたら「エルラ (Ælla) です」と奴隷は答えた.するとグレゴリーはそれをアレルヤとかけて「エルラの国でもアルレルリア (Allelulia) と,神をたたえる言葉が唱えられるようにしよう」と言った有名な話がありますね.本当にジョークで始まったんですね,イギリスの布教は.


・ 市河 三喜,松浪 有 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社,1986年.
・ 渡部 昇一,ピーター・ミルワード 『物語英文学史――ベオウルフからバージニア・ウルフまで』 大修館,1981年.

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2017-04-05 Wed

#2900. 449年,アングロサクソン人によるブリテン島侵略 [bede][oe][literature][popular_passage][history][anglo-saxon][oe_text]

 Bede の古英語訳により,英語史上記念すべき449年の記述 ("The Coming of the English") を市川・松浪編の古英語テキスト(現代英語訳付き)で読んでみよう (pp. 89--94) .アングロサクソン人は,ブリトン人に誘われた機会に乗じて,いかにしてブリテン島に居座るに至ったのか.

   Ðā wæs ymb fēower hund wintra and nigon and fēowertiġ fram ūres Drihtnes menniscnysse þæt Martiānus cāsere rīċe onfēng and vii ġēar hæfde. Sē wæs syxta ēac fēowertigum fram Augusto þām cāsere. Ðā Angelþēod and Seaxna wæs ġelaðod fram þām foresprecenan cyninge, and on Breotone cōm on þrim miċlum scipum, and on ēastdæle þyses ēalondes eardungstōwe onfēng þurh ðæs ylcan cyninges bebode, þe hī hider ġelaðode, þæt hī sceoldan for heora ēðle compian and fohtan. And hī sōna compedon wið heora ġewinnan, þe hī oft ǣr norðan onherġedon; and Seaxan þā siġe e ġeslōgan. Þā sendan hī hām ǣrendracan and hēton secgan þysses landes wæstmbǣrnysse and Brytta yrgþo. And hī sōna hider sendon māran sciphere strengran wiġena; and wæs unoferswīðendliċ weorud,þā hī tōgædere ġeþēodde wǣron. And him Bryttas sealdan and ġēafan eardungstōwe betwih him, þæt hī for sibbe and for hǣlo heora ēðles campodon and wunnon wið heora fēondum, and hī him andlyfne and āre forġēafen for heora ġewinne.
   Cōmon hī of þrim folcum ðām strangestan Germānie, þæt is of Seaxum and of Angle and of Ġēatum. Of Ġēata fruman syndon Cantware and Wihtsǣtan; þæt is se þēod þe Wiht þæt ēalond oneardað. Of Seaxum, þæt is of ðām lande þe mon hāteð Ealdseaxan, cōmon Ēastseaxan and Sūðseaxan and Westseaxan. And of Engle cōman Ēastngle and Middelengle and Myrċe and eall Norðhembra cynn; is þæt land ðe Angulus is nemned, betwyh Ġēatum and Seaxum; and is sǣd of ðǣre tīde þe hī ðanon ġewiton oð tōdæġe þæt hit wēste wuniġe. Wǣron ǣrest heora lāttēowas and heretogan twēġen ġebrōðra, Henġest and Horsa. Hī wǣron Wihtgylses suna, þæs fæder wæs Witta hāten, þæs fæder wæs Wihta hāten, þæs fæder wæs Woden nemned, of ðæs strȳnde moniġra mǣġðra cyningcynn fruman lǣdde. Ne wæs ðā ylding tō þon þæt hī hēapmǣlum cōmon māran weorod of þām þēodum þe wǣ ǣr ġemynegodon. And þæt folc ðe hider cōm ongan weaxan and myċlian tō þan swīðe þæt hī wǣron on myclum eġe þām sylfan landbīġengan ðe hī ǣr hider laðedon and cȳġdon.


   It was 449 years after our Lord's incarnation that the emperor Martianus received the kingdom, and he had (it) seven years. He was the forty-sixth from the emperor Augustus. Then the Angles and Saxons were invited by the aforesaid king (Vortigern), and came to Britain on three great ships, and received a dwelling place in the east of this island by order of the same king, who invited them hither, that they should strive and fight for their country. And they soon fought with their enemies who had oft harassed them from the north before; and the Saxons won victory then. Then they sent home messengers and bade (them) tell the fertility of this land and the Britons' cowardice. And then they sent a larger fleet of the stronger friends soon; and (it) was an invincible troop when there were united together. And the Britons gave and alloted them habitation among themselves, on the condition that they should fight for the peace and safety of their country and resist their enemies, and they (the Britons) should give them sustenance and estates in return for their strife.
   They came of the three strongest races of Germany, that is, of Saxons and of Angles and of Jutes. Of Jutes' origin are the people of Kent and the 'Wihtsætan', that is, the people who inhabit the Isle of Wight. Of the Saxons, of the land (of the people) that is called Old Saxons, came the East Saxons, the South Saxons, and the West Saxons. And of Angles came the East Angles and the Middle Angles and Mercians and the whole race of Northumbria; it is the land that is called Angulus, between the Jutes and the Saxons; and it is said from the time when they departed thence till today that it remains waste. At first their leaders and commanders were two brothers, Hengest and Horsa. They were the sons of Wihtgyls, whose father was called Witta, whose father was named Wihta, whose father was named Woden, of whose stock the royal families of many tribes took their origin. There was no delay until they came in crowds, larger hosts from the tribes that we had mentioned before. And the people who came hither began to increase and multiply so much that they were a great terror to the inhabitants themselves who had invited and invoked them hither.


・ 市河 三喜,松浪 有 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社,1986年.

Referrer (Inside): [2018-05-27-1] [2017-11-04-1]

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2017-04-03 Mon

#2898. Caedmon's Hymn [oe][popular_passage][literature][bede][oe_text]

 731年に完成したとされる Bede の Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (= Ecclesiastical History of the English People) は,アルフレッド大王の時代にマーシアの学者によって古英語に訳されている.そこには文盲の牛飼い Cædmon が霊感を得て作成したとされる,9行からなる現存する最古の古英詩 Cædmon's Hymn が収録されているが,そのテキストについては,さらに早い8世紀初頭の Bede のラテン語写本 (MS Kk. v. 16, Cambridge University Library; 通称 "Moore Manuscript") の中に,ノーサンブリア方言で書かれたバージョンも残されている.まず,オリジナルに最も近いと言われる Moore バージョンのテキストおよび現代英語訳を Irvine (37) より再掲しよう.

Nu scylun hergan   hefænricæs uard,
metudæs mæcti   end his modgidanc,
uerc uuldurfadur,   sue he uundra gihuæs,
eci dryctin,   or astelidæ.
He ærist scop   aelda barnum
heben til hrofe,   haleg scepen;
tha middungeard   moncynnæs uard,
eci dryctin,   æfter tiadæ
firum foldu,   frea allmectig.
   

Now [we] must praise the Guardian of the heavenly kingdom, the Creator's might and His intention, the glorious Father's work, just as He, eternal Lord, established the beginning of every wonder. He, holy Creator, first shaped heaven as a roof for the children of men, then He, Guardian of mankind, eternal Lord, almighty Ruler, afterwards fashioned the world, the earth, for men.


 次に,アルフレッド時代のものを Mitchell (212) より引用する.両テキスト間の綴字,音韻,形態,語彙の差に注意したい.

   Nū sculon heriġean   heofonrīċes weard,
Meotodes meahte   ond his mōdġeþanc,
weorc wuldorfæder,   swā hē wundra ġehwæs,
ēċe Drihten,   ōr onstealde.
   Hē ǣrest scēop   eorðan bearnum
heofon tō hrōfe,   hāliȝ Scyppend;
þā middanġeard   monncynnes weard,
ēċe Drihten,   æfter tēode
fīrum foldan,   Frēa ælmihtiġ.


 ・ Irvine, Susan. "Beginnings and Transitions: Old English." Chapter 2 of The Oxford History of English. Ed. Lynda Mugglestone .Oxford: OUP, 2006.
 ・ Mitchell, Bruce. An Invitation to Old English and Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell: Malden, MA, 1995.

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2017-03-31 Fri

#2895. 古英語聖書より「岩の上に家を建てる」 [oe][popular_passage][bible][literature][oe_text][hel_education]

 古英語訳の聖書は,古英語読解のための初級者向け教材として有用である.近代英語の欽定訳聖書 (The Authorized Version) や現代英語版はもちろん,日本語を含むありとあらゆる言語への訳も出されており,比較・参照できるからだ.
 以下,新約聖書より Matthew 7: 24--27 の「岩の上に家を建てる」寓話について,古英語版テキストを MS Corpus Christi College Cambridge 140 より示そう (Mitchell 60) .合わせて,対応する近代英語テキストを欽定訳聖書より引用する.

Ǣlċ þāra þe ðās mīne word ġehȳrþ and þā wyrcþ byþ ġelīċ þǣm wīsan were se hys hūs ofer stān ġetimbrode.
Þā cōm þǣr reġen and myċel flōd and þǣr blēowon windas and āhruron on þæt hūs and hyt nā ne fēoll・ sōþlīċe hit wæs ofer stān ġetimbrod.
And ǣlċ þāra þe ġehȳrþ ðās mīne word and þā ne wyrcþ・ sē byþ ġelīċ þǣm dysigan menn þe ġetimbrode hys hūs ofer sand-ċeosel.
Þā rīnde hit and þǣr cōmon flōd and blēowon windas and āhruron on þæt hūs and þæt hūs fēoll・ and hys hryre wæs miċel


Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:
And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock.
And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand:
And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.


 聖書に関する古英語テキストについては,「#1803. Lord's Prayer」 ([2014-04-04-1]),「#1870. 「創世記」2:18--25 を7ヴァージョンで読み比べ」 ([2014-06-10-1]) も参照されたい.

・ Mitchell, Bruce. An Invitation to Old English and Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell: Malden, MA, 1995.

Referrer (Inside): [2017-04-11-1]

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2017-03-30 Thu

#2894. 793年,ヴァイキングによるリンディスファーン島襲撃 [anglo-saxon_chronicle][popular_passage][oe][history][literature][oe_text]

 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle は,アルフレッド大王の命により890年頃に編纂が開始された年代記である.古英語で書かれており,9写本が現存している.最も長く続いたものは通称 Peterborough Chronicle と呼ばれもので,1154年までの記録が残っている.以下の抜粋は,Worcester Chronicle と呼ばれるバージョンの793年の記録である(Crystal 19 より現代英語訳も合わせて引用).数年前からイングランドに出没し始めたヴァイキングが,この年に,ノーサンブリアのリンディスファーン島を襲った.イングランド人の怯える様が,印象的に記されている.最後に言及されている Sicga なる人物は,788年にノーサンブリア王 Ǣlfwald を殺した悪名高い貴族である.

Ann. dccxciii. Her ƿæron reðe forebecna cumene ofer noðhymbra land . 7 þæt folc earmlic breȝdon þæt ƿæron ormete þodenas 7 liȜrescas . 7 fyrenne dracan ƿæron ȝeseƿene on þam lifte fleoȝende. þam tacnum sona fyliȝde mycel hunȝer . 7 litel æfter þam þæs ilcan ȝeares . on . vi. id. ianr . earmlice hæþenra manna herȝunc adileȝode ȝodes cyrican in lindisfarna ee . þurh hreaflac 7 mansliht . 7 Sicȝa forðferde . on . viii . kl. martius.


Year 793. Here were dreadful forewarnings come over the land of Northumbria, and woefully terrified the people: these were amazing sheets of lightning and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons were seen flying in the sky. A great famine soon followed these signs, and shortly after in the same year, on the sixth day before the ides of January, the woeful inroads of heathen men destroyed god's church in Lindisfarne island by fierce robbery and slaughter. And Sicga died on the eighth day before the calends of March.


 歴史上,この793年の事件は,イングランドにおける本格的なヴァイキングの侵攻の開始を告げる画期的な出来事である.

 ・ Crystal, David. Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices. London: The British Library, 2010.

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2017-03-29 Wed

#2893. Beowulf の冒頭11行 [beowulf][link][oe][literature][popular_passage][oe_text][hel_education]

 Beowulf は,古英語で書かれた最も長い叙事詩(3182行)であり,アングロサクソン時代から現存する最も重要な文学作品である.スカンディナヴィアの英雄 Beowulf はデンマークで怪物 Grendel を殺し,続けてその母をも殺した.Beowulf は後にスウェーデン南部で Geat 族の王となるが,年老いてから竜と戦い,戦死する.
 この叙事詩は,古英語で scop と呼ばれた宮廷吟遊詩人により,ハープの演奏とともに吟じられたとされる.現存する唯一の写本(1731年の火事で損傷している)は1000年頃のものであり,2人の写字生の手になる.作者は不詳であり,いつ制作されたかについても確かなことは分かっていない.8世紀に成立したという説もあれば,11世紀という説もある.
 冒頭の11行を Crystal (18) より,現代英語の対訳付きで以下に再現しよう.

1HǷÆT ǷE GARDEna in ȝeardaȝum .Lo! we spear-Danes in days of old
2þeodcyninȝa þrym ȝefrunonheard the glory of the tribal kings,
3hu ða æþelinȝas ellen fremedon .how the princes did courageous deeds.
4oft scyld scefing sceaþena þreatumOften Scyld Scefing from bands of enemies
5monegū mæȝþum meodo setla ofteahfrom many tribes took away mead-benches,
6eȝsode eorl[as] syððan ærest ƿearðterrified earl[s], since first he was
7feasceaft funden he þæs frofre ȝebadfound destitute. He met with comfort for that,
8ƿeox under ƿolcum, ƿeorðmyndum þah,grew under the heavens, throve in honours
9oðþ[æt] him æȝhƿylc þara ymbsittendrauntil each of the neighbours to him
10ofer hronrade hyran scoldeover the whale-road had to obey him,
11ȝomban ȝyldan þ[æt] ƿæs ȝod cyninȝ.pay him tribute. That was a good king!


 冒頭部分を含む写本画像 (Cotton MS Vitellius A XV, fol. 132r) は,こちらから閲覧できる.その他,以下のサイトも参照.

 ・ Cotton MS Vitellius A XV, Augustine of Hippo, Soliloquia; Marvels of the East; Beowulf; Judith, etc.: 写本画像を閲覧可能.
 ・ Beowulf: BL による物語と写本の解説.
 ・ Beowulf Readings: 古英語原文と「読み上げ」へのアクセスあり.
 ・ Beowulf Translation: 現代英語訳.
 ・ Diacritically-Marked Text of Beowulf facing a New Translation (with explanatory notes): 古英語原文と現代英語の対訳のパラレルテキスト.

 ・ Crystal, David. Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices. London: The British Library, 2010.

Referrer (Inside): [2017-04-20-1]

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