hellog〜英語史ブログ     ChangeLog 最新    

pun - hellog〜英語史ブログ

最終更新時間: 2019-11-20 09:36

2017-11-06 Mon

#3115. God に長母音の発音があり得た [pronunciation][meosl][vowel][pun]

 歴史的に,God の発音は言うまでもまく短母音を示してきた.現代英語では,イギリス発音で [gɒd] に対して,アメリカ発音では [gɑːd] を示すが,後者は比較的最近の長母音化の結果であり,歴史的に短母音であったという事実をくつがえすものではない.しかし,実のところ God に長母音をもつ [goːd] のような発音も,歴史的には行なわれていたようだ.古英語や中英語では,「神=良きもの」という発想から,問題の名詞 God と,本来的に長母音をもつ形容詞 good とをなぞらえたり,場合によっては同一視する地口 (pun) がしばしば行なわれたが,ダジャレという言葉遊びの域を超えたかと疑われるほどに,両語が長母音をもつ発音で文字通りに融合してしまった例が見られる.
 OED には,God の長母音を示唆する綴字(β系列)として,以下を列挙している.

β. OE (rare) ME-15 good, eME ȝode, ME goed, ME goid, ME gooddes (plural), ME guodes (genitive, perhaps transmission error), ME-16 gode, lME goodyse (genitive), lME goyd; U.S. regional 18- gord; Sc. pre-17 goid, pre-17 19- gode, 18- goad.


 OED では,さらに語源解説欄に次のように述べられている.要するに,God の長母音の発音は,斜格形においては中英語開音節長化 (Middle English Open Syllable Lengthening; meosl) の結果として規則的に得られたものであるという.

In Old English the word is often collocated with the formally identical but etymologically unrelated word gōd GOOD adj., GOOD n., and the two words are not always easy to distinguish (compare discussion at GOOD adj., n., adv., and int.). Rare occurrences of the form good in Old English (see β. forms) may result from confusion of this kind. The association of the two words continues in later English, sometimes leading to the deliberate euphemistic substitution of forms of GOOD n. for GOD n. (frequently in oaths); such substitution is found in several modern regional varieties, especially in Scots (compare GOOD n. 3).

It is nevertheless likely that the majority of Middle English (and later) β. forms show a genuine lengthening of the stem vowel, probably arising originally from open syllable lengthening in oblique (disyllabic) forms; pronunciations reflecting the lengthened form gode are attested in modern English regional and nonstandard use, e.g. J. Wright Eng. Dial. Gram. (1905) 464/1 records the pronunciation /ɡo:d/ from east Devon. (The suggestion made in N.E.D. (1900) that the motivation for lengthening may perhaps have been expressive, i.e. 'from a desire to utter the name of God more deliberately than the short vowel naturally allows', is unlikely.) A later (early modern English) lengthening is shown by GAWD n. The modern Scots forms goad, gode at β. forms probably represent the half-close realization of short typical of many varieties of Scots.


 MEDGod, god にも,"in ME , inflected forms with long vowel are attested in rime." とある.しかし,本来は長母音は God の斜格形に限定されたはずだが,それが無語尾の God にも波及したかと思われる例が,中英語で見受けられる.
 Dobson (Vol. 2, §53 n3) も,近代英語のイングランド北部やスコットランドの方言で,God に長母音の実現があったことについて触れている.

The long close [o:] and the diphthong [uə] which occur in Scottish and Northern dialects in blot, cot, God, cock, cog, frost, sop, &c. (and in Devon in God) may develop by ModE lengthening of ME , but in many cases are probably due to a ME variant in ǭ developed by lengthening in the open syllable of the oblique forms.


 God の長母音の発音は,マイナー・ヴァリアントとしてだが,歴史的に確実に存在したのである.

 ・ Dobson, E. J. English Pronunciation 1500--1700. 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1957. 2 vols.

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

2017-04-07 Fri

#2902. Pope Gregory のキリスト教布教にかける想いとダジャレ [oe][literature][popular_passage][christianity][oe_text][pun]

 古英語末期を代表する散文作家 Ælfric (955--1010) は,標準的な West-Saxon 方言で多くの文章を残した.今回は,Catholic Homilies の第2集に収められた,Pope Gregory のイングランド伝道に対する熱い想いを綴った,有名なテキストを紹介しよう.市川・松浪のエディション (105--10) の POPE GREGORY より,古英語テキストと現代英語訳を示す.

   Þā underȝeat se pāpa þe on ðām tīman þæt apostoliċe setl ȝesæt, hū sē ēadiga Grēgōrius on hālgum mæȝnum ðēonde wæs, and hē ðā hine of ðǣre munuclican drohtnunge ȝenam, and him tō ȝefylstan ȝesette, on diaconhāde ȝeendebyrdne. Ðā ȝelāmp hit æt sumum sǣle, swā swā ȝȳt foroft dēð, þæt englisce ċȳpmenn brōhton heora ware tō Rōmāna byriȝ, and Gregorius ēode be ðǣre strǣt tō ðām engliscum mannum heora ðing scēawiȝende. Þā ȝeseah hē betwux ðām warum, ċȳpecnihtas ȝesette, þā wǣron hwītes līchaman and fæȝeres andwlitan menn, and æðelīċe ȝefexode.
   Grēgōrius ðā behēold þǣra cnapena wlite, and befrān of hwilċere þēode hī ȝebrohte wǣron. Þā sǣde him man þæt hī of engla lande wǣron, and þæt ðǣre ðēode mennisc swā wlitiȝ wǣre. Eft ðā Grēgōrius befrān, hwæðer þæs landes folc cristen wǣre ðe hǣðen. Him man sǣde þæt hī hǣðene wǣron. Grēgōrius ðā of innweardre heortan langsume siċċetunge tēah, and cwæð: “Wā lā wā, þæt swa fæȝeres hīwes menn sindon ðām sweartan dēofle underðēodde.” Eft hē āxode hū ðǣre ðēode nama wǣre, þe hī of comon. Him wæs ȝeandwyrd þæt hī Angle ȝenemnode wǣron. Þā cwæð hē: “rihtlīċe hī sind Angle ȝehātene, for ðan ðe hī engla wlite habbað, and swilcum ȝedafenað þæt hī on heofonum engla ȝefēran bēon.” Gȳt ðā Grēgōrius befrān, hū ðǣre scīre nama wǣre, þe ðā cnapan of ālǣdde wæron. Him man sǣde þæt ðā scīrmen wǣron Dēre ȝehātene. Grēgōrius andwyrde: “Wel hī sind Dēre ȝehātene. for ðan ðe hī sind fram graman ȝenerode, and tō cristes mildheortnysse ȝecȳȝede.” Gȳt ðā hē befrān: “Hū is ðǣre leode cyning ȝehāten?” Him wæs ȝeandswarod þæt se cyning Ælle ȝehāten wǣre. Hwæt, ðā Grēgōrius gamenode mid his wordum to ðām naman, and cwæð: “Hit ȝedafenað þæt alleluia sȳ ȝesungen on ðām lande. tō lofe þæs ælmihtigan scyppendes.”
   Grēgōrius ðā sōna ēode tō ðām pāpan þæs apostolican setles, and hine bæd þæt hē Angelcynne sume lārēowas āsende, ðe hī to criste ȝebiȝdon, and cwæð þæt hē sylf ȝearo wǣre þæt weorc tō ȝefremmenne mid godes fultume, ȝif hit ðām pāpan swā ȝelīcode. Þā ne mihte sē pāpa þæt ȝeðafian, þeah ðe hē eall wolde, for ðan ðe ðā rōmāniscan ċeasterȝewaran noldon ȝeðafian þæt swā ȝetoȝen mann and swā ȝeðungen lārēow þā burh eallunge forlēte, and swā fyrlen wræcsīð ȝename.

Then perceived the pope who at that time sat on the apostolic seat, how the blessed Gregory was thriving in the holy troops, and he then picked him up from the monastic condition, and made him (his) helper, (being) ordained to deaconhood. Then it happened at one time (= one day), as it yet very often does, that English merchants brought their wares to the city of Rome, and Gregory went along the street to the English men, looking at their things. Then he saw, among the wares, slaves set. They were men of white body and fair face, and excellently haired.
   Gregory then beheld the appearance of those boys, and asked from which country they were brought. Then he was told that they were from England, and that the people of that country were so beautiful. Then again Gregory asked whether the fold of the land was Christian or heathen. They told him that they were heathen. Gregory then drew a long sigh from the depth of (his) heart, and said, 'Alas! that men of so fair appearance are subject to the black devil.' Again he asked how the name of the nation was, where they came from. He was answered that they were named Angles. Then said he, 'rightly they are called Angles, because they have angels' appearance, and it befits such (people) that they should be angels' companions in heavens!' Still Gregory asked how the name of the shire was, from which they were led away. They told him that the shiremen were called Deirians. Gregory answered, 'They are well called Deirians, because they are delivered from ire, and invoked to Christ's mercy.' Still he asked 'How is the king of the people called?' He was answered that the king was called Ælle. What! then Gregory joked with his words to the name, and said, 'It is fitting that Halleluiah be sung in the land, in praise of the Almighty Creator.'
   Then Gregory at once went to the pope of the apostolic seat, and entreated him that he should send some preachers to the English, whom they converted to Christ, and said that he himself was ready to perform the work with God's help, if it so pleased the pope. The pope could not permit it, even if he quite desired (it), because the Roman citizens would not consent that such an educated and competent scholar should leave the city completely and take such a distant journey of peril.


 なお,この逸話の主人公は後の Gregory I だが,テキスト中で示されている pāpa は当時の Pelagius II を指している.この後,さすがに Gregory が自らイングランドに布教に出かけるというわけにはいかなかったので,後に Augustinus (St Augustine) を送り込んだというわけだ.
 この逸話を受けて,渡部とミルワード (50--51) は,英国のキリスト教はダジャレで始まったようなものだと評している.

渡部 若いときにグレゴリーがローマで非常に肌の白い,金髪の奴隷を見ました.で,その奴隷に「おまえはどこから来たのか」ときいたら,「アングル (Angle)」人と答えた.そこでグレゴリーは「おまえはアングル人じゃなくてエンジェル (angel) のようだ」といったというような有名な話があります.
ミルワード そう,有名なシャレです.ですから,ある意味でイギリスのキリスト教史は言葉のシャレから始まると言うことができます.--- Non angli, sed angeli, --- Not Angles, but angels.
渡部 そして,「おまえの国は?」と聞いたら「デイラ (Deira) です」とその奴隷は答えた.すると「〔神の〕怒から (de ira) 救われて,キリストの慈悲に招かれるであろう」とグレゴリーは言ってやった.それから「おまえの王様の名は何か」と聞いたら「エルラ (Ælla) です」と奴隷は答えた.するとグレゴリーはそれをアレルヤとかけて「エルラの国でもアルレルリア (Allelulia) と,神をたたえる言葉が唱えられるようにしよう」と言った有名な話がありますね.本当にジョークで始まったんですね,イギリスの布教は.


・ 市河 三喜,松浪 有 『古英語・中英語初歩』 研究社,1986年.
・ 渡部 昇一,ピーター・ミルワード 『物語英文学史――ベオウルフからバージニア・ウルフまで』 大修館,1981年.

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow