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最終更新時間: 2024-07-13 08:07

2024-07-02 Tue

#5545. 古英語の定冠詞・疑問詞の具格 [oe][article][determiner][interrogative_pronoun][case][instrumental][inflection][etymology][comparative_linguistics][germanic]

 昨日の記事「#5544. 古英語の具格の機能,3種」 ([2024-07-01-1]) に引き続き,具格 (instrumental) について.古英語の定冠詞(あるいは決定詞) (definite article or determiner) の屈折表を「#154. 古英語の決定詞 se の屈折」 ([2009-09-28-1]) で示した.それによると,þȳ, þon といった独自の形態をとる具格形があったことがわかる.同様に疑問(代名)詞 (interrogative_pronoun) についても,その屈折表を「#51. 「5W1H」ならぬ「6H」」 ([2009-06-18-1]) に示した.そこには hwȳ という具格形が見られる.
 Lass (144) によると,これらの具格形は比較言語学的にも,直系でより古い形に遡るのが難しいという.純粋な語源形が突きとめにくいようだ.この辺りの事情を,直接 Lass に語ってもらおう.

There are remains of what is usually called an 'instrumental' in the masculine and neuter sg; this term as Campbell remarks 'is traditional, but reflects neither their origin nor their prevailing use' (1959: §708n). The two forms are þon, þȳ, neither of which is historically transparent. In use they are most frequent in comparatives, e.g. þȳ mā 'the more' (cf. ModE the more, the merrier), and as alternatives to the dative in expressions like þȳ gēare '(in) this year'. There is probably some relation to the 'instrumental' interrogative hwȳ 'why?', which in sense is a real one (= 'through/by what?'), but the /y:/ is a problem; hwȳ has an alternative form hwī, which is 'legitimate' in that it can be traced back to the interrogative base */kw-/ + deictic */ei/.


 比較言語学の手に掛かっても,すべての語源を追いかけて明らかにすることは至難の業のようだ.

 ・ Lass, Roger. Old English: A Historical Linguistic Companion. Cambridge: CUP, 1994.
 ・ Campbell, A. Old English Grammar. Oxford: OUP, 1959.

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