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最終更新時間: 2023-05-27 11:36

2022-01-04 Tue

#4635. "Great Complement Shift" 「大補文推移」 [gcs][gvs][syntax][verb][complementation][terminology][gerund][infinitive]

 英語史の最重要キーワードの1つである "Great Vowel Shift" (「大母音推移」; gvs)については本ブログでも多く取り上げてきたが,それにちなんで名付けられた統語論上の "Great Complement Shift" (「大補文推移」; gcs)については「#860. 現代英語の変化と変異の一覧」 ([2011-09-04-1]) でその名前に言及した程度でほとんど取り上げてきていなかった.これは,英語史上,動詞補分構造 (complementation) が大きく変化してきた現象を指す.この分野の第一人者である Rohdenburg (143) が,重要な論文の冒頭で次のように述べている.

Over the past few centuries, English has experienced a massive restructuring of its system of sentential complementation, which may be referred to as the Great Complement Shift.

 一括りに補文構造の大変化といっても,実際には様々な種類の変化が含まれている.それらが互いにどのような関係をもつのかは明らかにされていないが,Rohdenburg はまとめて GCS と呼んでいる.Rohdenburg (143--45) は,次のような通時的変化(あるいはそれを示唆する共時的変異)の例を挙げている.

 (1) She delighted to do it. → She delighted in doing it.
 (2) She was used/accustomed to do it. → He was used/accustomed to doing it.
 (3) She avoided/dreaded to go there. → She avoided/dreaded going there.
 (4) He helped (to) establish this system.
 (5) They gave us some advice (on/as to) how it should be done.
 (6) a. He hesitated (about) whether he should do it.
   b. He hesitated (about) whether to do it.
 (7) a. She was at a loss (about) what she should do.
   b. She was at a loss (about) what to do.
 (8) a. She advised to do it in advance.
   b. She advised doing it in advance.
   c. She advised that it (should) be done in advance.
 (9) a. He promised his friends to return immediately.
   b. He promised his friends (that) he would return immediately.

 統語論上これらを1つのタイプに落とし込むことは難しいが,動詞の補文として動名詞,不定詞,that 節,前置詞句などのいずれを取るのかに関して通時的変化が生じてきたこと,そして現在でもしばしば共時的変異がみられるということが,GCS の趣旨である.

 ・ Rohdenburg, Günter. "The Role of Functional Constraints in the Evolution of the English Complement System." Syntax, Style and Grammatical Norms: English from 1500--2000. Ed. Christiane Dalton-Puffer, Dieter Kastovsky, Nikolaus Ritt, and Herbert Schendl. Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. 143--66.

Referrer (Inside): [2022-01-05-1]

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