hellog〜英語史ブログ

#622. 現代英語の文法変化は統計的・文体的な問題[language_change][grammatical_change][speed_of_change][style][relative_pronoun][interrogative_pronoun][pde_language_change]

2011-01-09

 [2011-01-07-1],[2011-01-08-1]で,文法変化が時間をかけて徐々に進行するものであることを述べた.ここから,典型的には,文法変化の観察は少なくとも数世代にわたる長期的な作業ということになる.長期間にわたって文法変化の旧項目が新項目に徐々に取って代わられてゆく速度を計るには,途中のいくつかの時点で新旧項目の相対頻度を調べることが必要になる.ここに,コーパスを利用した統計的な研究の意義が生じてくる.Leech et al. (50) は,通時変化の研究では頻度の盛衰こそが重要であると力説している.

Theorizing about diachronic changes has focused primarily on the processes whereby new forms are initiated and spread, and until recently has paid comparatively little attention to the processes by which the range and frequency of usage contracts, and eventually disappears from the language. . . . one of the message we wish to convey is that frequency evidence is far more important in tracing diachronic change than has generally been acknowledged in the past.


 Leech et al. (8) に引用されている以下の Denison の評も同様の趣旨で統語変化について述べたものだが,多かれ少なかれ形態変化にも当てはまるだろう(赤字は転記者).

Since relatively few categorial losses or innovations have occurred in the last two centuries, syntactic change has more often been statistical in nature, with a given construction occurring throughout the period and either becoming more or less common generally or in particular registers. The overall, rather elusive effect can seem more a matter of stylistic than of syntactic change, so it is useful to be able to track frequencies of occurrence from eModE through to the present day. (Denison 93)


 この引用文の重要な点は,往々にして統語変化が統計的 ( statistical ) な問題であると同時に文体的 ( stylistic ) な問題であることを指摘している点である.例えば,現代英語における疑問代名詞・関係代名詞 whom の衰退は,進行中の文法変化の例としてよく取り上げられるが,格 ( case ) に関する純粋に統語的な問題である以上に,統計的かつ文体的な問題ととらえるべきかもしれない.「統計的」というのは,統語環境による whomwho の区別それ自体は近代英語期以来あまり変化していず,あくまで両者の頻度の盛衰の問題,通時コーパスで盛衰の度合いを確認すべき問題だからである.
 「文体的」というのは,書き言葉と話し言葉の別,またテキストのジャンルによって whom の頻度が大きく異なるからである.格という統語的な区別が前提になっているとはいえ,whom / who の選択には formality という文体的な要素が大きく関わっているということは,もはやこの問題を純粋に統語変化の問題ととらえるだけでは不十分であることを示している.
 whom / who に関わる選択と文法変化については多くの先行研究があるが,現状と参考文献については Leech et al. の第1章,特に pp. 1--4, 12--16 が有用である.

 ・ Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair, and Nicholas Smith. Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: CUP, 2009.
 ・ Denison, David. "Syntax." The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 4. Ed. Suzanne Romaine. Cambridge: CUP, 1998. 92--329.

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#624. 現代英語の文法変化の一覧[language_change][grammatical_change][pde]

2011-01-11

 [2010-05-31-1]の記事で「現代英語に起こっている言語変化」を箇条書きしたが,今回は文法変化に的を絞って,もう少し注目すべき項目を追加したい.以下は,Leech et al. による "A consensus list of grammatical topics worth exploring" である (18--19) .このリスト自体は Barber (130--44) に基づいているものである.いくつかの項目には hellog 内の関連する話題へのリンクも張っておいた.

 ・ decline of the inflected form whom (see [2011-01-09-1].)
 ・ use of less instead of fewer with countable nouns (e.g. less people)
 ・ regularization of irregular morphology (e.g. dreamtdreamed) (for octopuses, see [2009-08-26-1], [2010-09-30-1]; for oxes, see [2010-08-22-1])
 ・ a tendency towards analytical comparison of disyllabic adjectives (politer, politestmore polite, most polite) (see [2010-06-04-1], [2010-07-27-1])
 ・ spread of the s-genitive to non-human nouns (the book's cover)
 ・ revival of the 'mandative' subjunctive, probably inspired by formal US usage (we demand that she take part in the meeting) (see [2010-03-18-1], [2010-03-19-1], [2010-04-07-1], [2009-08-17-1] )
 ・ elimination of shall as a future marker in the first person (see [2010-03-21-1], [2010-07-22-1])
 ・ development of new, auxiliary-like uses of certain lexical verbs (e.g. want towanna --- cf., e.g., the way you look, you wanna see a doctor soon)
 ・ further auxiliation of semi-auxiliaries and modal idioms such as be going to (→ gonna) or have got to (→ gotta) (see [2009-07-01-1])
 ・ extension of the progressive to new constructions (especially modal, present perfect and past perfect passive progressives of the type the road would not be being built / has not been being built / had not been being built)
 ・ use of like, same as, and immediately as conjunctions
 ・ omission of the definite article in combinations of premodifying descriptive noun phrase and proper name (e.g. renowned Nobel laureate Derek Walcott)
 ・ increase in the number and types of multi-word verbs (phrasal verbs, have / take / give a + verb)
 ・ placement of frequency adverbs before auxiliary verbs (even if no emphasis is intended --- I never have said so)
 ・ do-support for have (Have you any money? and No, I haven't any moneyDo you have / have you got any money? and No, I don't have any money / I haven't got any money)
 ・ spread of 'singular' they (Everybody came in their car) to formal and standard usage. ( see [2010-01-27-1] )

 その他,短縮否定 (e.g. isn't) の増加,ゼロ関係詞と that 関係詞の使用,New York City Ballet School instructor の類の名詞連鎖なども加えられるだろう.

 ・ Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair, and Nicholas Smith. Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: CUP, 2009.
 ・ Barber, Charles. Linguistic Change in Present-Day English. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1964.

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#860. 現代英語の変化と変異の一覧[pde][language_change][pde_language_change]

2011-09-04

 [2010-05-31-1]の記事「現代英語に起こっている言語変化」と[2011-01-11-1]の記事「現代英語の文法変化の一覧」で,現代英語に生じている言語変化の一覧を挙げたが,今回はその拡大版を作った.網羅的な一覧は作り得ないので,Barber, Bauer, Fennell, Potter, Leech et al. その他の諸文献で取り上げられているような言語変化および変異の項目を,参照用にまとめたものとして理解されたい.含めた項目の広がりと細かさは恣意的だが,中心に据えたのは "PDE linguistic changes and variations in spoken and written varieties of present-day Standard British and/or American English" である.より詳しい一覧としては,中尾を参照されたい.
 通時的変化と共時的変異の区別は曖昧であり,明確に言語変化とみなせるかどうか疑わしい例もあるかもしれない.また,逸話や直感のレベルで言語変化と言い立てられている例も含まれている.さらに,すべて現代英語で進行中の変化ではあるが,多くは現代英語で始まった変化ではない.多くは近代英語期から,あるいは中英語期以前から継続している変化であり,前史をもっている点にも注意したい.いずれの項目も,現代英語に生じている変化としてみなせるかどうか,検証するに値する項目ではある.

phonology

  • centering of short vowels (Barber 42): yes, good
  • change of /ɔː/ to /ɔ/ before /f/, /s/, and /θ/ (Barber 43): off, lost, cloth
  • closer /ɔː/: lord used to be pronounced like lard today
  • Continental pronunciation (Barber 72--74, Potter 31--32): Seine, Cherbourgh, Majorca, Sofia, Buenos Aires; quasi-, nuclei
  • de-syllabification of pp adj. with -ed (#776): aged, beloved
  • de-syllabification of /iə, uə/ to /i-ə, u-ə/ (Potter 18--19)
  • diphthongisation of /iː/ and /uː/ (Barber 44--45): tea, two
  • dramatic fronting of /uː/ and /ʌ/ in RP (Bauer 114--21)
  • final /iː/ for /i/ (Barber 46--47): pretty, Derby
  • fluctuation in pronunciation (#488, #766): applicable, dilemma, status
  • h-dropping (#462): herb, homage
  • initial /h/ for /wh/: where, what
  • instable pronunciation of triphthongs (Potter 19--20): [faə], [fɑə], [fɑː]] for [faiə]
  • intrusive (linking) -r (#500): the idea(r) of, law(r) and order
  • intrusive stops (Barber 58--59): fan(t)cy, warm(p)th, leng(k)th
  • loss of final alveolars (Barber 53--54): no(t) bad, ol(d) man, half pas(t) five
  • loss of plosives (Barber 54): knocked, East Coast
  • loss of /p/ from initial /ps/ and /pt/ (Barber 55): pseudo, psyche
  • new weak forms of pronunciation (Barber 64): /srait/ (that's right), /fjuˈlaik/ (if you like), /ˈtsɔːl ˈrait/ (it's all right)
  • Northern Cities Shift (#396)
  • noun-verb stress alternation (#803, #804, #406)
  • simplification of double consonants (Barber 54--55): a good deal, upside-down, lamp-post, prime-minister
  • Southern Hemisphere Shift (#402)
  • spelling pronunciation (#211, #212, #379): often, forehead
  • spread of /ə/ in unstressed syllables (Barber 48--49): ability, women, useless, engine
  • spread of glottal stops (Barber 60--61): butter, batman, button, not yet
  • vocalic influence of "dark l (Barber 47--48): revolve, solve; salt, falter; milk
  • voicing of intervocalic consonants (Barber 57): letter, better, British
  • vowel shift in Estuary English (#465)
  • word stress shift (#488, #769; #321, #342, #366): controversy, harass, Caribbean
  • /ɛ/ for /eɪ/ (#541, #543): says, against
  • yod-dropping (#841): dew, enthuse, lewd, new, suit, tune

morphology

  • acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms (#625, #817): EU, UNESCO, asap
  • active conversion (#394): to pluto
  • active blending (#631, #625): electrocute, Singlish
  • active shortening (Barber 89--91): telly, mike, sub, polio, bra
  • affixation (#732, #133, #593, #420): -dom, -ish, -wise, super-, mini-
  • back-formation (#108): baby-sit, escalator, ism, enthuse, liaise
  • change in formation of new words (Bauer 38--40): blends and compounds grow while suffixation and neo-classical compounds decline
  • conversion of phrasal verbs to nouns (Potter 171--73): breakout, getaway, layout, leftover, setup, walkout
  • generalisation of the s-plural (#121, #161, #482): thesauruses, mouses, oxes
  • headless compound (#420): pickpocket, sell-out
  • -ic for -ical (Barber 115): comic, botanic, politic
  • monosyllabism (Potter 76--78): ad, jet, op, quake
  • regularisation of irregular verb conjugations (#178, #528): dreamed for dreamt, wedded for wed
  • spread of the s-genitive to non-human nouns (#425): today's newspaper, the book's cover
  • suffixation for semantic differentiation (Potter 74--76): emergency / emergence, continuance / continuation / continuity
  • variants of the preterite of verb (#312): dove / dived, sung / sang, swum / swam

syntax

  • analytical comparison of disyllabic adjectives (#403, #456, #425; Bauer 51--61): more polite, most polite for politer, politest
  • change in case inflections of personal pronouns (Bauer 88): between you and I for between you and me; than myself to avoid the choice of either I or me
  • change in non-finite clausal complementation (part of "Great Complement Shift") (Leech et al. 205)
  • decline of wh-relatives in AmE (#424, #425; Bauer 66--83)
  • decline of whom (#622)
  • decline of auxiliary verbs like shall, ought (to), need(n't) (#677)
  • decline of passive constructions (Leech et al. 164)
  • development of new, auxiliary-like uses of certain lexical verbs: wanna for want to,
  • do-support for have in BrE: Have you any money? and No, I haven't any moneyDo you have / have you got any money? and No, I don't have any money / I haven't got any money
  • do-support for be (Potter 132): Why don't you be a good boy?, Why on earth doesn't the fellow be reasonable?
  • due to as a compound preposition (Barber138): Due to heart-failure, he suffered an early death.
  • elimination of shall as a future marker in the first person (#301)
  • expansion of phrasal verbs and compound verbs (Barber 140): run down; build up, start up
  • extension of the progressive to new constructions (especially modal, present perfect and past perfect passive progressives: the road would not be being built / has not been being built / had not been being built / They are remembering the days of their childhood, You are surely imagining things
  • fixed order of attributive adjectives (Potter 152--56): his five short brilliant creative years
  • fluctuation of prepositions in phrases (#301): different to for different from
  • further auxiliation of semi-auxiliaries and modal idioms (#64): gonna, have got to, be supposed to
  • gerunds as attributives (Fennell 174): the come-backing Australian tennis player, Claire X is a rapidly becoming confused mother of four
  • hyphenated attributives (Potter 106--107): an off-the-cuff opinion, round-the-clock discussions, hard-to-get-at volumes
  • increase in negative and verbal contractions: is'nt, it's
  • increase in the number and types of multi-word verbs (expanded predicates): phrasal verbs, have / take / give a + noun
  • increase in title + name: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher for Mrs Thatcher, the Prime Minister, young Lambeth housewife Amy Green for Mrs Green, a young Lambeth housewife
  • less use of no-negation in contrast to not-negation (Leech et al. 241)
  • like, same as, and immediately as conjunctions (#312)
  • longer VPs (catenatives) (Fennell 174): He appears to wish to be able to carry on being examined by the same doctor.
  • more use of adjectives as adverbs (#312): They pay them pretty good.
  • more zero-relatives and that-relatives (Bauer 66--83)
  • more use of less instead of fewer with countable nouns: less people
  • more use of the preterite for the perfect (Fennell 175): I bought a new car for I've bought a new car
  • more use of the get-passive (Leech et al. 164): get frightened, get mixed
  • more use of the mediopassive (Leech et al. 165): Oilcloth wears well, Thr routes are designed to bicycle in a few hours.
  • (multiple) noun adjuncts (#625, #425; Potter 107--13, Fennell 175): World Court, recreation facilities, for health reasons, on efficiency grounds, weapons technology; World Heath Organization, Trades union congress centenary, New York City Ballet School instructor, railway station waiting room murder inquiry verdict
  • "noun disease" (Potter 100--05): London's growth is rapid for London is growing rapidly
  • number concord of collective nouns (#312; Bauer 61--66): The Government has/have been considering further tax cuts.
  • omission of the definite article (Potter 144--46): (the) university, (the) Government, (the) radio, all (the) winter
  • omission of have and do (Barber 136--37): we done it, they been, you seen; What you want that for?, Where you think you're going?
  • omission of Do you in questions (Barber 137): Like a cigarette?, Have a drink?
  • omission of that in now that and so that (Barber 138)
  • placement of frequency adverbs before auxiliary verbs even if no emphasis is intended: I never have said so
  • plural attributives (Bauer 48): drugs courier for drug courier
  • positive tags as afterthoughts (Potter 160): We all agree on this, or do we?, We know in our hearts that we shall be rewarded, or do we?
  • revival of the 'mandative' subjunctive, probably inspired by formal US usage (#312, #325, #326): we demand that she take part in the meeting
  • sentences becoming shorter (Barber 143)
  • sort of and kind of as adverbs (Barber 138): meaning so to speak, if that is the right word for it
  • spread of 'singular' they to formal and standard usage (#275; Bauer 148): Everybody came in their car
  • suppressed prepositions (Potter 140--41): agree (with), approve (of), compensate (for), protest (against), cope (with)
  • syntactic contamination (#737; Barber 139): both A but also B; between A to B, comprise of
  • this and that as intensive adverbs (Potter 147): It is not all that simple.

semantics

  • change in usage and meaning of words (#823, #755, #301): uninterested / disinterested, literally, hopefully

pragmatics

  • decline of she for ships and countries (#852)
  • decline of honorific vocatives such as Mr and Sir
  • democratised mode of address as by first-names (Bauer 141--45)
  • increase in questions (Leech et al. 242)
  • popularisation of political correctness (#115): Ms, chairperson; refuse collector
  • second person plural pronouns (#312, #529): y'all, you guys

lexicon

  • change in sources of new words (Bauer 35--36): English grows while French, Latin, and Greek decline
  • Cockney rhyming-slang since the World Wars (Barber 103): trouble and strife (wife), half-inch (to pinch), titfer (hat)
  • general growth in vocabulary (#629, #623)
  • Greco-Latin scientific vocabulary and its popularisation (Potter 90--98): ISV (International Scientific Vocabulary) such as pediatrics, arthritis, euphoria, claustrophobia, inferiority complex
  • growth in e-vocabulary as a result of e-revolution
  • new intensifiers (Barber 123--24): smashing, shattering, wizard, bang-on, super, super-duper, massive, fabulous
  • new lexical euphemisms (Barber 125): slump / depression / recession / downturn
  • proper names and trade names (Barber 95--97): diesel, kodak, Hoover, Biro
  • revival of old (esp. war-related) words: frigate, corvette, armour

spelling

  • -ise / -ize in BrE (#314; Bauer 134--35): emphasise, criticise, characterise, summarise, specialise
  • "pronunciation spelling" (#799, #825): lite, thru, warez

punctuation

  • fewer exclamation marks and semi-colons (Leech et al. 245)
  • growth in parenthetic sentences (Barber 143): Boxer Bill Smith (he will be twenty-four to-morrow) has signed a contract to fight. . .
  • increase of quoted speech (Leech et al. 248)
  • less use of apostrophes (Bauer 132--33): the 1969s
  • less use of hyphens (Potter 58--59): yearbook for year-book or year book; today for to-day
  • more use of quotes (Potter 56--57): to impress the uninitiated?
  • preference for lowercase (Potter 59--60): neo-platonic for Neo-Platonic or neo-Platonic
  • smileys and emoticons (#808): :-) and :-(
  • unindented address lines (Bauer 132)


 ・ Barber, Charles. Linguistic Change in Present-Day English. Alabama: U of Alabama P, 1964.
 ・ Bauer, Laurie. Watching English Change: An Introduction to the Study of Linguistic Change in Standard Englishes in the Twentieth Century. Harlow: Longman, 1994.
 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.
 ・ Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair, and Nicholas Smith. Change in Contemporary English: A Grammatical Study. Cambridge: CUP, 2009.
 ・ Potter, Simon. Changing English. London: Deutsch, 1969.
 ・ 中尾 俊夫 著,児馬 修・寺島 迪子 編 『変化する英語』 ひつじ書房,2003年.

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#301. 誤用とされる英語の語法 Top 10[prescriptive_grammar]

2010-02-22

 1986年,BBC Radio 4 シリーズの English Now で視聴者アンケートが行われた.もっとも嫌いな文法間違いを三点挙げてくださいというものだ.集計の結果,以下のトップ10ランキングが得られた ( Crystal 194 ).

 (1) between you and I : 前置詞の後なので I でなく me とすべし.
 (2) split infinitives : 「分離不定詞」.to suddenly go など,to と動詞の間に副詞を介在させるべからず.
 (3) placement of only : I saw only Jane の意味で I only saw Jane というべからず.
 (4) none + plural verb : None of the booksare でなく is で受けるべし.
 (5) different to : different from とすべし.
 (6) preposition stranding : 「前置詞残置」.That was the clerk I gave the money to のように前置詞を最後に残すべからず.
 (7) first person shall / will : 未来を表す場合には,I shall, you will, he will のように人称によって助動詞を使い分けるべし.
 (8) hopefully : 文副詞としての用法「望むらくは」は避けるべし.
 (9) who / whom : 目的格を正しく用い,That is the man whom you saw とすべし.
 (10) double negation : They haven't done nothing のように否定辞を二つ用いるべからず.

 20年以上前のアンケートだが,現在でもほぼこのまま当てはまると考えてよい.なぜならば,上記の項目の多くが19世紀,場合によっては18世紀から連綿と続いている,息の長い stigmatisation だからである.(8) などは比較的新しいようだが,他の掟は長らく規範文法で「誤り」とのレッテルを貼られてきたものばかりである.たとえ順位の入れ替えなどはあったとしても,20年やそこいらで,この10項目がトップクラスから消えることはないだろう.規範文法が現代標準英語の語法に大きな影響を与えてきたことは事実だが,一方でいくら矯正しようとしても数世紀にわたって同じ誤りが常に現れ続けてきた現実をみると,言語の規範というのはなかなかうまくいかないものだなと改めて考えさせられる.

Though the grammarians indisputably had an effect on the language, their influence has been overrated, since many complaints today about incorrect usage refer to the same features as those that were criticised in eighteenth-century grammars. This evident lack of effect is only now beginning to draw the attention of scholars. (Tieken-Boon van Ostade 6)


 関連する話題としては,[2009-08-29-1], [2009-09-15-1]も参照.

 ・Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. 2nd ed. Cambridge: CUP, 1997.
 ・Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid. An Introduction to Late Modern English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009.

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#737. 構文の contamination[blend][contamination][syntax][superlative][bnc][corpus]

2011-05-04

 [2011-01-17-1]blend混成語」を話題にした際に少々触れたが,類似した過程に contamination混交」がある.両者は意識的か否かという観点か区別されることがあるが,特に区別せず同様に用いられることもある.通常は語形成上の過程として捉えられるが,[2011-01-17-1]の記事で触れたように構文のレベルででも起こりうる.例えば,前の記事では,"Why did you do that for?" や "different than" を挙げた.
 Graddol を講読中に構文の contamination に出会った(赤字は引用者).

English is remarkable for its diversity, its propensity to change and be changed. This has resulted in both a variety of forms of English, but also a diversity of cultural contexts within which English is used in daily life. (5)


 ここでは,both . . . and . . .not only . . . but also . . . の構文が混交している.BNCweb より検索キーワード "both +** but also" で類例を探してみると,6例ほどが見つかった(赤字は引用者).

 - Ion Pacepa, Ceausescu's chief intelligence officer who defected in 1978, takes particular pleasure in his memoirs in exposing Stefan Andrei as both corrupt but also as well aware of the absurdity of the Ceausescus' pretensions, especially Elena's academic titles.
 - Their economy and population were both suffering, but also they were becoming wary of the Dzhungars' increasing strength.
 - In fitting statistical models to study relationships, it is important to take account of such hierarchies, both for technical reasons but also because influential factors can be present at any or all levels of aggregation.
 - The changes that have been introduced into South Africa [pause] forced upon the white minority government by both international pressure but also by the magnificent work at the A N C in Cosatu [pause] must be supported as well but we cannot treat South Africa as anything but a pariah [pause] a, a, a national pariah [pause] until we see one person one vote, and a black majority government in South Africa.
 - 'Committees' means both actual committees but also individuals or organisers listed as committees.
 - I mean that can be both pleasurable, but also make somebody feel uncomfortable.


 contamination は,共時的には話者の発話時に生じる2つの関連構文の混交として解釈されるが,これが共同体に広がってある程度の認知度を得ると,新しい構文として独立し定着することがある.そのような場合には,contamination は通時的な観点からアプローチすることができるだろう.以下は現代英語に見られる構文の contamination の例だが,これらがいつ頃に現われ,現在までにどの程度の認知度を得てきたかという問題は,英語史の問題である.

 (1) these kinds of things: these thingsthis kind of things の混交.
 (2) different than: different fromother than の混交.
 (3) different to: different fromopposed to の混交.similar to との類推とも考えられる.
 (4) cannot help but do: cannot help doingcannot but do の混交.
 (5) It is no good for us complaining about it.: It is no good for us to complain about it.It is no good we complaining about it. の混交.
 (6) no sooner . . . when: no sooner . . . thanscarcely . . . when の混交.
 (7) I am friends with him.: I am friendly with him.He and I are friends. の混交.
 (8) a man whom she thought was a murderer: a man who she thought was a murderera man whom she thought to be a murderer の混交.
 (9) the cleverest of all the other boys: cleverer than the other boysthe cleverest of all the boys の混交.

 調べてみるといろいろとあるようだが,(9) のような例は少なくないようで,石橋 (127) は次のようにコメントしている.研究材料としておもしろそうだ.

Sunday's action was the most brilliant and fruitful of any fought up to that date by the fighters of the Royal Air Force. [the most . . . of (all) + (more . . . than) any]---W. Churchill / This is the greatest error of all the rest. [the greatest . . . of (all) + (a greater . . . than) all the rest]---Sh., Mids. N. D. v. i. 250. 最後の例のように,最上級に修飾される名詞を,意味上はそれを含まないはずの「その他」の中に包括させた混交表現を,とくに包括最上級 (Inclusive superlative) と呼ぶことがある.その例は近代初期の英語にときどき見いだされる.


 ・ Graddol, David. The Future of English? The British Council, 1997. Digital version available at http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-research-futureofenglish.htm
 ・ 石橋 幸太郎 編 『現代英語学辞典』 成美堂,1973年.

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