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最終更新時間: 2022-06-28 08:40

2022-03-18 Fri

#4708. 世界英語の静的モデルの形成 --- Strang, Quirk et al., Kachru [world_englishes][model_of_englishes][dynamic_model][history_of_linguistics]

 世界英語 (world_englishes) のモデル化 (model_of_englishes) の歴史は,優に半世紀を超える.もっともよく参照されている図式は,Quirk et al. による ENL (English as a Native Language), ESL (English as a Second Language), EFL (English as a Foreign Language) の3区分モデルといってよいだろう(「#173. ENL, ESL, EFL の話者人口」 ([2009-10-17-1]) を参照).
 それを受けて,Kachru が新たな解釈を加え,批判的に "Three Circles" のモデルを唱えたこともよく知られている.Quirk et al. のものとそっくりの同心円ではあるが,それぞれを Inner Circle, Outer Circle, Expanding Circle と呼び変えたのである.各サークルが規範に対してどのような立場にあるかという観点から,それぞれを norm-providing, norm-developing, norm-dependent とみなした点に新しさがあった(「#217. 英語話者の同心円モデル」 ([2009-11-30-1]),「#222. 英語話者の同心円モデル (2)」 ([2009-12-05-1]) を参照).
 これらの最初期の世界英語モデルは,まずもって分かりやすく,広く受け入れられるに至ったが,その一方で「#4472. ENL, ESL, EFL という区分の問題点」 ([2021-07-25-1]) でみたように,しばしば批判にもさらされてきた.近年は Quirk et al. と Kachru のあまりに静的なモデルに飽き足りず,より動的なモデルが提案されてきている.これについては「#4497. ポストコロニアル英語変種に関する Schneider の Dynamic Model」 ([2021-08-19-1]) を参照されたい.
 さて,当初の静的なモデルは,上に述べたように Quirk et al. が提案し,それに Kachru が批判的に反応したという経緯で知られるようになったものと認識していたが,Percillier (6) によると,学史としては Quirk et al. の前段階に Strang の提案があったようだ.これは知らなかった.

   One such earlier model is the ENL-ESL-EFL model. The abbreviations used in the name of this model refer to the categories English as a Native Language, English as a Second Language, and English as Foreign Language (sic) respectively. These labels were coined by Quirk et al. (1972: 3--4) and describe three types of English based on the function of the language in a given country or territory. The idea of this categorisation goes back to Strang (1970: 17--18), who uses the labels A-speakers, B-speakers, and C-speakers. In this context, Strang also argues that A- and B-speakers develop their own local norms, whereas C-speakers rely on the standard of one of the major English-speaking communities (1970: 18--19). In their relabelling of Strang's suggestion, Quirk et al. (1972) do not mention this latter point, which has led to a general interpretation of the ENL-ESL-EFL model as implying ENL norms.
   A further model, the Three Circles model (Kachru 1985), also referred to as the Kachruvian Circles, draws a similar distinction into Inner, Outer, and Expanding Circles of English (henceforth, InnerC, OuterC, and ExpandingC), the difference being that the distribution of varieties of English around the world is described without implying that non-native forms are in any way deficient in comparison to native forms. Further, Kachru (1985: 16--17) describes the InnerC as norm-providing, the OuterC as norm-developing, and the ExpandingC as norm-dependent, the latter meaning that without norms of its own, the ExpandingC follows norms from the InnerC. In excluding the OuterC from the norm-dependent category, Kachru picks up on the point made by Strang (1970: 18--19) which was excluded by Quirk et al. (1972). This represents a break from the approach implicit in the ENL-ESL-EFL model, in which only the InnerC could be seen as a "norm maker", and the OuterC/ExpandingC as "norm breakers" (Kachru 1985: 17).


                             +-----> Quirk et al. (1972) -----+
                             |                                |
                             |                                v
          Strang (1970) -----+-------------------------------->-----> Kachru (1985) 

 ・ Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman, 1972.
 ・ Kachru, B. B. "Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle." English in the World. Ed. R. Quirk and H. G. Widdowson. Cambridge: CUP, 1985. 11--30.
 ・ Percillier, Michael. "Adapting the Dynamic Model to Historical Linguistics: Case Studies on the Middle English and Anglo-Norman Contact Situation." Chapter 2 of English Historical Linguistics: Historical English in Contact. Ed. Bettelou Los, Chris Cummins, Lisa Gotthard, Alpo Honkapohja, and Benjamin Molineaux. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2022. 5--33.
 ・ Strang, Barbara M. H. A History of English. London: Methuen, 1970.

Referrer (Inside): [2022-03-19-1]

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2021-08-19 Thu

#4497. Schneider の ポストコロニアル英語変種に関する "Dynamic Model" [model_of_englishes][world_englishes][new_englishes][variety][sociolinguistics][contact][accommodation][variation][dynamic_model]

 先日,「#4492. 世界の英語変種の整理法 --- Gupta の5タイプ」 ([2021-08-14-1]) や「#4493. 世界の英語変種の整理法 --- Mesthrie and Bhatt の12タイプ」 ([2021-08-15-1]) で世界英語変種について2つの見方を紹介した.他にも様々なモデルがあり,model_of_englishes で取り上げてきたが,近年もっとも野心的なモデルといえば,Schneider の ポストコロニアル英語変種に関する "Dynamic Model" だろう.2001年から練り上げられてきたモデルで,今や広く受け入れられつつある.このモデルの骨子を示すのに,Schneider (47) の以下の文章を引用する.

Essentially, the Dynamic Model claims that it is possible to identify a single, underlying, fundamentally uniform evolutionary process which can be observed, with modifications and adjustments to local circumstances, in the evolution of all postcolonial forms of English. The postulate of some sort of a uniformity behind all these processes may seem surprising and counterintuitive at first sight, given that the regions and historical contexts under investigation are immensely diverse, spread out across several centuries and also continents (and thus encompassing also a wide range of different input languages and language contact situations). It rests on the central idea that in a colonization process there are always two groups of people involved, the colonizers and the colonized, and the social dynamics between these two parties has tended to follow a similar trajectory in different countries, determined by fundamental human needs and modes of behaviour. Broadly, this can be characterized by a development from dominance and segregation towards mutual approximation and gradual, if reluctant, integration, followed by corresponding linguistic consequences.

 このモデルを議論するにあたっては,その背景にあるいくつかの前提や要素について理解しておく必要がある.Schneider (47--51) より,キーワードを箇条書きで抜き出してみよう.

[ 4つの(歴史)社会言語学の理論 ]

 1. Language contact theory
 2. A "Feature pool" of linguistic choices
 3. Accommodation
 4. Identity

[ 2つのコミュニケーション上の脈絡 ]

 1. The "Settlers' strand"
 2. The "Indigenous strand"

[ 4つの(歴史)社会言語学的条件と言語的発展の関係に関わる要素 ]

 1. The political history of a country
 2. Identity re-writings of the groups involved
 3. Sociolinguistic conditions of language contact
 4. Linguistic developments and structural changes in the varieties concerned

[ 5つの典型的な段階 ]

 1. Foundation
 2. Exonormative stablization
 3. Nativization
 4. Endonormative stabilization
 5. Differentiation

 Schneider のモデルは野心的かつ包括的であり,その思考法は Keller の言語論を彷彿とさせる.今後,どのように議論が展開していくだろうか,楽しみである.

 ・ Schneider, Edgar W. "Models of English in the World." Chapter 3 of The Oxford Handbook of World Englishes. Ed. by Markku Filppula, Juhani Klemola, and Devyani Sharma. New York: OUP, 2017. 35--57.
 ・ Keller, Rudi. On Language Change: The Invisible Hand in Language. Trans. Brigitte Nerlich. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

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