#4708. 世界英語の静的モデルの形成 --- Strang, Quirk et al., Kachru[world_englishes][model_of_englishes][dynamic_model][history_of_linguistics]


 世界英語 (world_englishes) のモデル化 (model_of_englishes) の歴史は,優に半世紀を超える.もっともよく参照されている図式は,Quirk et al. による ENL (English as a Native Language), ESL (English as a Second Language), EFL (English as a Foreign Language) の3区分モデルといってよいだろう(「#173. ENL, ESL, EFL の話者人口」 ([2009-10-17-1]) を参照).
 それを受けて,Kachru が新たな解釈を加え,批判的に "Three Circles" のモデルを唱えたこともよく知られている.Quirk et al. のものとそっくりの同心円ではあるが,それぞれを Inner Circle, Outer Circle, Expanding Circle と呼び変えたのである.各サークルが規範に対してどのような立場にあるかという観点から,それぞれを norm-providing, norm-developing, norm-dependent とみなした点に新しさがあった(「#217. 英語話者の同心円モデル」 ([2009-11-30-1]),「#222. 英語話者の同心円モデル (2)」 ([2009-12-05-1]) を参照).
 これらの最初期の世界英語モデルは,まずもって分かりやすく,広く受け入れられるに至ったが,その一方で「#4472. ENL, ESL, EFL という区分の問題点」 ([2021-07-25-1]) でみたように,しばしば批判にもさらされてきた.近年は Quirk et al. と Kachru のあまりに静的なモデルに飽き足りず,より動的なモデルが提案されてきている.これについては「#4497. ポストコロニアル英語変種に関する Schneider の Dynamic Model」 ([2021-08-19-1]) を参照されたい.
 さて,当初の静的なモデルは,上に述べたように Quirk et al. が提案し,それに Kachru が批判的に反応したという経緯で知られるようになったものと認識していたが,Percillier (6) によると,学史としては Quirk et al. の前段階に Strang の提案があったようだ.これは知らなかった.

   One such earlier model is the ENL-ESL-EFL model. The abbreviations used in the name of this model refer to the categories English as a Native Language, English as a Second Language, and English as Foreign Language (sic) respectively. These labels were coined by Quirk et al. (1972: 3--4) and describe three types of English based on the function of the language in a given country or territory. The idea of this categorisation goes back to Strang (1970: 17--18), who uses the labels A-speakers, B-speakers, and C-speakers. In this context, Strang also argues that A- and B-speakers develop their own local norms, whereas C-speakers rely on the standard of one of the major English-speaking communities (1970: 18--19). In their relabelling of Strang's suggestion, Quirk et al. (1972) do not mention this latter point, which has led to a general interpretation of the ENL-ESL-EFL model as implying ENL norms.
   A further model, the Three Circles model (Kachru 1985), also referred to as the Kachruvian Circles, draws a similar distinction into Inner, Outer, and Expanding Circles of English (henceforth, InnerC, OuterC, and ExpandingC), the difference being that the distribution of varieties of English around the world is described without implying that non-native forms are in any way deficient in comparison to native forms. Further, Kachru (1985: 16--17) describes the InnerC as norm-providing, the OuterC as norm-developing, and the ExpandingC as norm-dependent, the latter meaning that without norms of its own, the ExpandingC follows norms from the InnerC. In excluding the OuterC from the norm-dependent category, Kachru picks up on the point made by Strang (1970: 18--19) which was excluded by Quirk et al. (1972). This represents a break from the approach implicit in the ENL-ESL-EFL model, in which only the InnerC could be seen as a "norm maker", and the OuterC/ExpandingC as "norm breakers" (Kachru 1985: 17).


                             +-----> Quirk et al. (1972) -----+
                             |                                |
                             |                                v
          Strang (1970) -----+-------------------------------->-----> Kachru (1985) 

 ・ Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman, 1972.
 ・ Kachru, B. B. "Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle." English in the World. Ed. R. Quirk and H. G. Widdowson. Cambridge: CUP, 1985. 11--30.
 ・ Percillier, Michael. "Adapting the Dynamic Model to Historical Linguistics: Case Studies on the Middle English and Anglo-Norman Contact Situation." Chapter 2 of English Historical Linguistics: Historical English in Contact. Ed. Bettelou Los, Chris Cummins, Lisa Gotthard, Alpo Honkapohja, and Benjamin Molineaux. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2022. 5--33.
 ・ Strang, Barbara M. H. A History of English. London: Methuen, 1970.

Referrer (Inside): [2022-03-19-1]

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