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最終更新時間: 2019-06-15 08:19

2016-10-13 Thu

#2726. derring-do [ghost_word][chaucer][spenser][lydgate]

 昨日の記事「#2725. ghost word」 ([2016-10-12-1]) で,derring-do (大胆な行動,必死の勇)という語について触れた.今回は,この幽霊語についてもう少し詳しく解説しよう.
 昨日見たように Chaucer の In durryng don . . . がこの表現の端緒となったが,その後 John Lydgate (1370?--1450?) の Troy Book (a1420) では dorryng do という綴字で使用された.これが,1513年の版本では誤植により derrynge do として現われている.この誤植された綴字は,そのまま Edmund Spenser (1552?--99) が受け継ぎ,これを動詞句としてではなく名詞句と誤解し,Shepheardes Calender (1579) の October において "manhood and chevalrie" と注解を与えた.この語は,後に Sir Walter Scott (1771--1832) により Ivanhoe (1819) で deeds of such derring-do として用いられ,これを19世紀のロマン派の作家たちが頻繁に模倣したことにより,一般化した.
 OED では,"pseudo-archaism" とレーベルが貼られた上で,次のように語源の解説がある.

The words come incidentally in their ordinary sense and construction followed by the object 'that' (= what, that which) in Chaucer's Troylus; whence, in an imitative passage by Lydgate, in an absolute construction more liable to misunderstanding; Lydgate's dorryng do was misprinted in the 16th c. editions (1513 and 1555) derrynge do, in which form it was picked up by Spenser and misconstrued as a subst. phrase, explained in the Glossary to the Sheph. Cal. as 'manhood and chevalrie'. Modern romantic writers, led by Sir W. Scott, have taken it from Spenser, printed it derring-do, and accentuated the erroneous use.

 上記に挙げた作家たちによる用例を,OED より再掲しよう.

c1374 Chaucer Troilus & Criseyde v. 837 Troylus was neuere vn-to no wight..in no degre secounde, In dorryng don [v.rr. duryng do, dorynge to do] þat longeth to a knyght..His herte ay wiþ þe firste and wiþ þe beste Stod paregal, to dorre don [v.rr. durre to do, dore don] that hym leste.

1430 Lydgate tr. Hist. Troy ii.xvi. (MSS. Digby 232 lf. 56 a/2; 230 lf. 81 a/1) And parygal, of manhode and of dede, he [Troylus] was to any þat I can of rede, In dorryng [v.rr. doryng(e] do, this noble worþy wyght, Ffor to fulfille þat longeþ to a knyȝt, The secounde Ector..he called was. [1513, 1555 In derrynge do, this noble worthy wyght.]

1579 Spenser Shepheardes Cal. Oct. 65 For ever who in derring doe were dreade, The loftie verse of hem was loved aye. [Gloss., In derring doe, in manhood and chevalrie.]

. . . .

1819 Scott Ivanhoe II. xv. 300 Singular..if there be two who can do a deed of such derring-do. [Note. Derring-do, desperate courage.]

1843 E. Bulwer-Lytton Last of Barons I. i. vi. 107 Such wonders and dareindo are too solemn for laughter.

1866 G. W. Dasent Gisli 107 Such a deed of derring-do would long be borne in mind.

1885 R. F. Burton tr. Arabian Nights' Entertainm. (1887) III. 433 Who is for duello, who is for derring-do, who is for knightly devoir?

 Lydgate の用例をみると,Spenser より前の段階で,すでに動詞句としてではなく名詞句として解されていた可能性がありそうだ.

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