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#777. 英語史略年表[timeline][history][historiography]

2011-06-13

 英語史年表は,どの概説書にも記載があるしオンラインでも見つけられる(例えば英語の歴史年表―前史・古英語期)が,本ブログとしての版も作成してゆこうと考えている.たたき台として,Crystal (298--300) の略年表を再現したものを掲げておく.その他,直接間接に英語史に関連する年表は timeline を参照.

449   Invasion by Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
450--480   Earliest runic inscriptions in Old English
597   Augustine brings Christianity to Kent
680   Approximate earliest date for the composition of Beowulf
700   Approximate dating of earliest Old English manuscripts
735   Death of the Venerable Bede
787   Viking raids begin
871   Alfred becomes King of Wessex
886   Danelaw boundaries settled
950--1000   Approximate dates of the main Old English poetry collections
1016--1042   Cnut and his sons reign
1066   Norman Conquest
1150--1200   Earliest texts in Middle English
1171   Henry II's invasion of Ireland
1204   France reconquers Normandy
1250--1300   Edward I's campaigns against the Welsh and Scots
1362   English first used at the opening of Parliament
1375--1400   Chaucer's main works written
1384   Wyclif's translation of the Bible
1400--1450   The Great Vowel Shift
1400--1600   Main period of older Scots literature
1476   Introduction of printing
1475--1650   Renaissance loan words into English
1549   Book of Common Prayer written
1560--1620   English plantation settlements in Ireland
1584   Roanoke settlement in America
1590--1616   Shakespeare's main works written
1600   East India Company established trading posts in India
1603   Act of Union of the crowns of England and Scotland
1604   Publication of Robert Cawdrey's A Table Alphabeticall
1607   First permanent English settlement in America
1609   First English settlement in the Caribbean
1611   Authorized Version of the Bible
1619   Arrival of first African slaves in North America
1620   Arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers in America
1623   First Folio of Shakespeare's plays published
1627   British established in Barbados
1655   British acquire Jamaica from Spain
1707   Union of the Parliaments of England and Scotland
1712   Jonathan Swift's proposal for an English Academy
1713   British control in eastern Canada recognized
1721   Publication of Nathaniel Bailey's Universal Etymological English Dictionary
1755   Publication of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language
1762   Publication of Robert Lowth's Short Introduction to English Grammar
1765--1947   British Raj in India
1776   American independence declared
1780--1800   First wave of emigration to Canada from the USA
1783   Loss of American colonies of Britain
1788   Establishment of first penal colony in Australia
1791   Establishment of Upper and Lower Canada
1794   Publication of Lindley Murray's English Grammar
1800--1910   Main period of European emigration to the USA
1802   Ceylon and Trinidad ceded to Britain
1803   Act of Union between Britain and Ireland
1806   British control established in South Africa
1808   Sierra Leone made colony
1814   Tobago, Mauritius, St Lucia and Malta ceded to Britain
1816   Colony of Bathurst (Gambia) established
1819   British established Singapore
1828   Publication of Noah Webster's American Dictionary of the English Language
1840   Official colony established in New Zealand
1842   Hong Kong ceded to Britain
1861   Lagos (Nigeria) established as colony
1865--1900   Movement of blacks to northern parts of the USA after the American Civil War
1867   Independence of Canada
1874   Gold Coast (Ghana) established as colony
1884--1928   Publication of the Oxford English Dictionary
1888--1894   British protectorates established in Kenya, Zanzibar, Uganda
1901   Independence of Australia
1907   Independence of New Zealand
1910   Union of South Africa established
1919   Tanganyika ceded to Britain
1922   Partition of Northern Ireland and Eire
1922   Establishment of the BBC
1925   Afrikaans given official status in South Africa
1931   British Commonwealth recognized
1947   Independence of India
1948   Independence of Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
1957   Independence of Ghana
1957--63   Independence of Malaysia
1960   Independence of Nigeria
1940--1975   Main period of immigration to Britain from Europe, Caribbean and Asia
1961   Independence of Sierra Leone and Cyprus
1962   Independence of Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda
1963   Independence of Kenya
1964   Independence of Tanzania, Malawi, Malta, Zambia
1965   Independence of The Gambia, Singapore
1966   Independence of Guyana, Botswana, Lesotho, Barbados
1968   Independence of Mauritius, Swaziland, Nauru
1970--1984   Independence of possessions in Caribbean and Pacific
1972   Independence of Bangladesh
1972   First network e-mail sent
1975   Independence of Papua New Guinea
1977   Voyager spacecraft leaves with English message
1984   Independence of Brunei
1986   Independence of Marshall Islands
1988   CD-ROM of the Oxford English Dictionary
1990   Independence of Namibia
1991   Independence of the Federated States of Micronesia
1991   Implementation of the World Wide Web
1994   Independence of Palau
2000   Oxford English Dictionary goes online


 ・ Crystal, David. The English Language. 2nd ed. London: Penguin, 2002.
 ・ 寺澤 芳雄,川崎 潔 編 『英語史総合年表−英語史・英語学史・英米文学史・外面史−』 研究社,1993年.

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#1368. Fennell 版,英語史略年表[timeline][history][historiography]

2013-01-24

 「#777. 英語史略年表」 ([2011-06-13-1]) では,Crystal 版の英語史略年表を掲載したが,今回は Fennell 版を再現する.Fennell では各章の最初に対象となっている時代に関する年表が載せられており,以下はそれをほぼ忠実に編集したまでで,細かくは整理していない.Fennell の著書の題名から予想されるとおり,社会史的な側面が強く反映されている年表である.

8000 BC   Hunter groups move into Lapland
7000 BC   Wheat, barley and pulses cultivated from Anatolia to Pakistan; goats and pigs domesticated
7000 BC   Farming developed on Indian subcontinent; barley main crop
6500 BC   Adoption of farming in Balkan region; beginning of the European Neolithic spread of domestic animals, probably from Anatolia
6200 BC   Farming villages established in the west and central Mediterranean
5200 BC   First farmers of central Europe spread northwest as far as the Netherlands
4500 BC   Cattle used as plough animals in lower Danube region
4500 BC   First megalithic tombs built in western Europe
4400 BC   Domestication of horse on Eurasian Steppes
4200 BC   Earliest copper mines in eastern Europe
4200 BC   Agriculture begins south of the Ganges
3800 BC   Ditched enclosures around settlements in western Europe, forming defended villages
3500 BC   New faming practices: animals increasingly used for traction, wool and milk; simple plough (ard) now used in northern and western Europe
3250 BC   Earliest writing from western Mesopotamia: pictographic clay used for commercial accounts
3200 BC   First wheeled vehicles in Europe (found in Hungary)
3100 BC   Cuneiform script developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC   Construction of walled citadels in Mediterranean Europe and development of successful metal industry
2900 BC   Appearance of Corded Ware pottery in northern Europe
2500 BC   Bell beakers found in western Europe, often associated with individual burials
2500 BC   Development of urban civilization in the Indian Plain
2500 BC   Earliest syllabic script used in Sumerian literature
2300 BC   Beginning of full European Bronze Age
2000 BC   Fortified settlements in east and central Europe point to increasing social and economic pressures
1900 BC   Cretan hieroglyphic writing
1850 BC   Horses used for the first time to pull light carts in the western Steppes
1650 BC   Linear A script (Crete and the Cyclades)
1650 BC   City-states of central Anatolia unified to form the Hittite kingdom with a strongly fortified capital at Boğazköy
1400 BC   Linear B script (mainland and islands of Greece)
1400 BC   Development of pastoral nomadism on the Steppes: cattle herded from horseback
1300 BC   Westward spread of urnfield cemeteries
1200 BC   Collapse of Hittite empire
1000 BC   Hillforts in Western Europe
1000 BC   Full nomadic economy on the Steppes based on rearing horses, cattle and sheep
850 BC   First settlement at Rome; cluster of huts on Palatine Hill
800 BC   Establishment of culture north and east of Alps --- first stage of Celtic Iron Age (Hallstatt)
800 BC   Rise of Etruscan city-states in central Italy
800 BC   Rise of cities and states in Ganges Valley supported by rice farming
750 BC   First Greek alphabetic inscription
750 BC   Ironworking spreads to Britain
750 BC   Earliest Greek colonies set up from western Mediterranean to the eastern shores of the Black Sea
690 BC   Etruscan script developed from Greek
600 BC   Trade between Celts north west of Alps and Greek colonies of the west Mediterranean; rich wagon burials attest to wealth and power of Celtic elite
600 BC   Latin script
600 BC   Central lowlands of northern Europe first settled
600 BC   First Greek coins
480 BC   2nd stage of European Bronze Age (La Tène)
480 BC   Emergence of classical period of Greek arts and architecture
480 BC   City-states reach height of importance
460 BC   Parchment replaces clay tablets for Aramaic administrative documents
450 BC   Athens, the greatest Greek city-state, reaches the peak of its power
400 BC   Carthage dominates the west Mediterranean
390 BC   Celts sack Rome
334 BC--329 BC   Alexander the Great invades Asia Minor, conquers Egypt and Persia and reaches India; Hellenism established in Asia
331 BC   Alexandria founded
250 BC   Brahmin alphabetic script in India
250 BC   All of peninsular Italy controlled by Rome
206 BC   Rome gains control of Spain
146 BC   Romans destroy the Greek states but Greek culture still important and Greek artists brought to Rome
146 BC   Roman destruction of Carthage
55 BC   Julius Caesar attempts to invade Britain
27 BC   Augustus sole ruler of Roman empire
43--50   Emperor Claudius invades Britain
50   Rome largest city in the world --- population 1 million
117   Roman empire reaches its greatest extent
125   Hadrian's Wall built
285   Administrative separation of eastern and western halves of Roman empire
313   Edict of Milan: toleration of Christianity in Roman empire
330   Constantine founds Constantinople as new eastern capital of the Roman empire
410   Sack of Rome by Visigoths leading to collapse of western Roman empire
410   Romans withdraw from Britain
429   German (Vandal) kingdom in north Africa
449   Angles, Saxons and Jutes invade Britain
597   St Augustine introduces Christianity to the English
787   Scandinavian invasions begin
793   Sacking of Lindisfarne
878   King Alfred defeats the Danes at Eddington
878   Treaty of Wedmore
899   King Alfred dies
1016   Danish King Cnut rules England
1042   Accession of Edward the Confessor to the English throne
1066   Battle of Hastings; Norman Conquest
1095   First Crusade
1170   Assassination of Thomas à Becket
1204   King John loses lands in Normandy
1259--1265   The Barons' War
1337--1453   The Hundred Years War
1340--1400   Geoffrey Chaucer
1346   Battle of Crecy
1346   Battle of Poitiers
1348--1351   The Black Death
1362   Parliament opened in English
1362   The Statute of Pleading (English becomes the official language of legal proceedings)
1381   The Peasants' Revolt
1415   Battle of Agincourt
1476   Caxton introduces the printing press
1489   French no longer used as the language of Parliament
1509   Henry VIII ascends the throne
1534   Act of Supremacy
1536   Small monasteries dissolved
1536   Statute incorporates all of Wales with England
1539   English translation of Bible in every church
1547   Edward VI
1553   Mary Tudor
1554   Mary marries Philip of Spain
1558   Elizabeth I
1559   Act of Supremacy restores laws of Henry VIII
1574   First company of actors; theatre building begins
1577   Sir Francis Drake plunders west coast of South America
1584   Colonists at Roanoke
1600   British East India Company founded
1600   Population of England c.2.5 million
1603   James I
1605   Barbados, West Indies, claimed as English colony
1606   Virginia Company of London sends 120 colonists to Virginia
1607   Jamestown, Virginia, is established by London Co. as the first permanent English settlement in America
1611   King James Bible
1616   Death of Shakespeare
1620   The Pilgrims arrive at Plymouth Rock on the Mayflower
1621   English attempt to colonize Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
1625   Charles I
1627   Charles I grants charter to the Guiana Company
1633   English trading post established in Bengal
1637   English traders established in Canton
1639   English established at Madras
1642--1646   Civil War
1646   English occupy the Bahamas
1648   Second Civil War
1649   Cromwell invades Ireland
1649   Charles I beheaded
1649   Charles II
1649   Commonwealth established
1653   Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
1655   English capture Jamaica
1660   Charles II restored to throne
1663   Charles II grants charter to Royal African Company
1668   British East India Company gains control of Bombay
1670   English settlement in Charles Town, later Charleston, South Carolina
1680--1689   Welsh Quakers settle in large numbers in Pennsylvania
1680--1689   First German immigrants in America
1684   Bermudas become Crown Colony
1689   William and Mary proclaimed king and queen in England and Ireland
1690   Calcutta founded
1690   Population of England c.5 million
1700   Population of England and Scotland 7.5 million
1707   Union of England and Scotland as Great Britain
1707   British land in Acadia, Canada
1710   English South Sea Company founded
1727   George II
1729   North and South Carolina become Crown Colonies
1729   Benjamin and James Franklin publish 'The Pennsylvania Gazette'
1744   Robert Clive arrives at Madras
1756--1763   The French and Indian War in North America
1759   British take Quebec from the French
1760   George III
1762   British capture Martinique, Grenada, Havana and Manila
1765--1947   British Raj in India
1770   James Cook discovers Botany Bay, Australia
1774   Parliament passes the Stamp Act, unifying the colonies against the British
1775   The East India, or Tea, Act prompts the Boston Teat Party
1775--1783   American War of Independence
1776   American Declaration of Independence
1776   The Revolutionary War begins
1778   Cook discovers Hawaii
1783   The Treaty of Paris successfully ends the Revolution
1783   British recognize US independence
1784   Pitt's India Act: East India Company under government control
1786   Penang ceded to Great Britain
1789   George Washington inaugurated as first US President
1790   The first penal colony established in Sydney, Australia
1795, 1806   British forces occupy Cape of Good Hope
1800   British capture Malta
1803   The Louisiana Purchase doubles the size of US territory
1810   British seize Guadeloupe
1811   British occupy Java
1812--1814   War of 1812 between the USA and Britain
1819   Florida purchased by the USA from Spain
1819   British settlement established in Singapore by East India Company
1822   English becomes the official language of the Eastern Cape of South Africa
1822   Liberia founded --- Africa's oldest republic
1824   Erie Canal opens, strengthening east-west trade, but increasing the isolation of the south
1824   British take Rangoon, Burma
1828   The Baltimore and Ohio Railway opens
1832   Britain occupies the Falkland Islands
1837   Queen Victoria
1837   The electric telegraph demonstrated by Samuel Morse
1840   New Zealand becomes an official colony
1840   Penny post introduced in Britain
1842   Hong Kong ceded to Great Britain
1848   Gold discovered in California
1849   Gold Rush
1851   Victoria, Australia, proclaimed separate colony
1852   New constitution for New Zealand
1858   Powers of East India Company transferred to British Crown
1860   Kowloon added to British territories in South-East Asia
1861   Civil War begins with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
1861   British Colony founded in Lagos, Nigeria
1863   Emancipation of the slaves is proclaimed, as of 1 January
1865   General Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox
1865   President Lincoln is assassinated, five days later
1867   Alaska is purchased from Russia, becoming the 49th state in 1959
1867   Federal Malay States become a Crown Colony
1869   The first transcontinental railroad is completed
1876   Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
1877   Edison invents the phonograph
1878   David Hughes invents the microphone
1879   London opens its first telephone exchange
1884   Papua New Guinea becomes British protectorate
1885   Britain established protectorate over Northern Bechuanaland, Niger River Region and southern New Guinea, and occupies Port Hamilton, Korea
1886   First Indian National Congress meets
1887   First Colonial Conference opens in London
1888   Cecil Rhodes granted mining rights by King of Matabele
1890   Rhodes becomes Premier of Cape Colony
1893   Uganda united as British protectorate
1893   USA annexes Hawaii
1895   Marconi invents radiotelegraphy
1895   Auguste and Louis Lumière invent the motion-picture camera
1895   British South Africa Company territory south of the Zambezi River becomes Rhodesia
1898   America receives Guam and sovereignty over the Philippines
1898   New Territories leased by Britain from China for 99 years
1899   First magnetic sound recordings
1899--1902   Boer War
1900   R. A. Fessenden transmits the human voice via radio waves
1900   British capture Bloemfontein, relieve Mafeking, annex Orange Free State and Transvaal and take Pretoria and Johannesburg Commonwealth of Australia created
1901   Marconi transmits radiotelegraph messages from Cornwall to New Zealand
1901   End of Queen Victoria's reign
1903   Ford Motor Company founded
1903   Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first successful manned flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
1903   British conquer northern Nigeria
1907   New Zealand becomes a dominion within the British Empire
1908   Union of South Africa established
1908   Henry Ford introduces the mass-produced Model T
1914   Panama Canal opened
1914--1918   World War I
1916   USA purchases Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands)
1917   USA purchases Dutch West Indies
1919   League of Nations founded
1920   Gandhi emerges as leader of India
1920   Kenya becomes British colony
1921   British Broadcasting Corporation founded
1921   First Indian Parliament meets
1924   The National Origins Act marks the official end of large-scale immigration to America; from this point on numbers are restricted and quotas are introduced
1924   British Imperial Airways founded
1925   John Logie Baird transmits a picture of a human face via television
1928   John Logie Baird demonstrates first colour television
1929   Teleprinters and teletypewriters first used
1929   First scheduled TV broadcasts in Schernectedy, New York
1929   First talking pictures made
1936   BBC London television service begins
1938   Lajos Biró invents the ball-point pen
1939--1945   World War II
1942   First computer developed in the United States
1942   Magnetic recording tape invented
1944   First telegraph line used between Washington and Baltimore
1945   United Nations founded
1946   Chester Carlson invents Xerography
1946   Philippines become independent from the United States
1947   Transistor invented at Bell Laboratories
1947   India proclaimed independent
1948   Peter Goldmark invents the long-playing record
1951   Colour TV introduced into USA (15 million TV sets in USA)
1952   Accession of Queen Elizabeth II
1957   Common Market established by Treaty of Rome
1957   Malaysian independence
1958   First stereophonic recordings
1962--1975   Uganda, Kenya, Zambia (Northern Rhodesia), Malawi, Malta, Gambia, Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Guyana, Mauritius, Nigeria, Bahamas, Papua New Guinea all become independent of Great Britain
1965   Atlantic cable completed
1968   Intelsar communication satellite launched
1989   South Africa desegregated
1997   Hong Kong rule returns to China


 ・ Crystal, David. The English Language. 2nd ed. London: Penguin, 2002.
 ・ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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#1369. フィシャク版,英語史略年表[timeline][history][historiography]

2013-01-25

 昨日の記事「#1368. Fennell 版,英語史略年表」 ([2013-01-24-1]) に引き続き,今日はフィシャク版の年表を再現する.日本語での英語史年表もあると便利だと思い,和訳に従った (207--10) .同じ英語史の年表といっても,作成者によって力点が異なるものであり,それぞれに特徴がある.年表も確かに1つの歴史記述の方法であるということを認識させられる.

55, 54 BC   ユーリウス・カエサルが軍隊を率いてブリテン島に上陸
43 BC   ローマ帝国による組織的なブリテン島征服が始まる
end of C3   ゲルマン人諸部族による最初のブリテン島攻撃
367   スコット人(アイルランドから),ピクト人(北から),サクソン人(東から)が,ローマ支配下のブリテン島を攻撃
375   フン族の西進を逃れようと西ゴート族がドナウ川を渡りローマ領内に侵入し,ゲルマン民族の大移動が始まる.ローマ帝国が大打撃を受ける
383   ローマ軍がローマに召喚される
410   最後のローマ軍団がブリテン島から撤退
449   ゲルマン人部族がブリテン島に侵入し,征服を始める
c500   「バドニクス丘」の戦いで侵入者ゲルマン人が敗れ,ブリテン島征服は南部において一時中断
547?   ハンバー川以北にアングル族が王国を建てる
597   聖アウグスティヌスがケント王国に到着し,ブリテン島南部に住んでいたゲルマン人にキリスト教の布教を始める
634   アイルランドの修道僧がノーサンブリアのキリスト教化に乗り出す
655   マーシアのキリスト教改宗がノーサンブリアとアイルランドの宣教師たちの手により完了
664   ノーサンブリアにおいて,ホイットビー教会会議が開かれる.ブリテン島やアイルランドのキリスト教がローマ教会に統一される契機となる
c725   口承による『ベーオウルフ』がこの頃完成される
787   デーン人の侵攻が始まる
865   デーン人侵攻の第2期
871--899   アルフレッド大王の治世
879   アルフレッド大王と(グスルムが率いる)デーン人との間でウェドモアの協定.デーンロー地域の確定
886   アルフレッド大王がロンドンを占領.グスルムの王国を除く全イングランドがその統治権を認める
964   修道院の改革が始まり,英語の標準化に影響を与える
973   エドガーがバースにおいて,初めてキリスト教の儀式による戴冠式を挙げ,(デーンロー地域を含む)全イングランドの最初の王となる
991   オラフ・トリュグヴァソンがイギリスに侵攻.デーン人侵攻の第3期が始まる
1066   ウィリアム征服王がヘースティングズの戦いで勝利をおさめ,ノルマン人の英国征服が始まる.フランス語とラテン語が英語に代わって公用語となる
1154   『ピーターバラ年代記』と呼ばれる写本の記録はこの年で終結する.(一般に『アングロ・サクソン年代記』と呼ばれる.写本は7つあり,カエサルの侵入から始まっている.)
1204   ジョン王がフランス国王フィリップ2世に敗れ,ノルマンディーがフランス王の手に渡る.イギリスの民族主義が高まり始める
1250   英国貴族の二重忠節が終結し,フランス語を重んずる必要がなくなる
1258   ヘンリー3世が,ノルマン人の英国征服以降初めて英語で布告を出す
1295   チェルムズフォードの裁判所で,文書が英語とフランス語の両語で読まれる
1337--1453   百年戦争.この戦争により,イギリス人はフランスのあらゆるものに対して敵愾心を抱くようになる
1344   大法官宛の請願書が初めて英語で書かれる
1348--1350   黒死病のため,イギリス社会に大規模な住民の移動がおこる
1362   国会が初めて英語で開会される.議会は「訴答手続法」を制定し,1363年1月以降はすべての訴訟手続,審議は英語で行なうことに決められる
1381   農民一揆がおこり,社会的変動の進行を加速する
c1385   英語がイングランド全域の学校で用いられるようになる
1413   ヘンリー4世が英国王として初めて英語で遺書を残す
1422   英語による最初の玉璽文書
1423   国会の議事録が英語で書かれ始める
c1430   町や同業組合の公文書に英語を用い始める
1476   ウィリアム・キャクストンがイングランドに戻り,ウエストミンスターに最初の印刷所をつくる
1499   キャクストンの後継者ピンソンが,英語・ラテン語の二言語語彙集,『子供のための言葉の宝庫』を出版する(書かれたのは1440年).辞書編纂への一歩となる
1534   ヘンリー8世がローマ教会との関係を絶ち,英国国教会が成立
1564--1616   ウィリアム・シェークスピアの生涯
1586   ウィリアム・ブローカ著『文法のための小冊子』(同著者による現存しない文法書の簡易版)が出版される.最初の英文法書
1588   スペインの無敵艦隊に勝利.英語が世界に広がる端緒となる
1604   ロバート・コードリー著『アルファベット順語彙一覧』の出版.最初の英語の一言語辞典(英英辞典)
1607   アメリカに英語がもたらされる.今日のヴァージニア州に,入植者によってジェームズタウンが建設される
1611   欽定英訳聖書(ジェームズ王聖書)の出版
1639--1686   インド(マドラス,カルカッタ,ボンベイ)に英国の入植地が建設される
1642--1660   市民革命
1664   王立教会が「英語を改良するための」委員会を設置
1712   J. スウィフトによるオックスフォード伯への手紙が『英語の矯正,改良,確定のための提案』として出版され,アカデミーの設立を促す
1713   ノヴァスコシアがフランスからイギリスに譲渡される
1755   サミュエル・ジョンソン著『英語辞典』が出版される.19世紀末まで正しい英語の揺るぎない権威的存在となる
1759   ウルフ将軍がケベックの戦いでフランス軍に勝利
1761   インドがイギリスの植民地となる
1769--1777   キャプテン・クックが,南太平洋への航海途上で,オーストラリア,ニュージーランド,タスマニアをイギリス王領と宣言する
1775--1783   アメリカ独立戦争により,アメリカ合衆国の誕生
1788   オーストラリアのニューサウスウェールズに最初の流刑地植民地が建設される.ケープタウン(南アフリカ)にあるオランダ植民地がイギリス領有となる
1805   トラファルガーの海戦においてイギリス軍がフランス軍に勝利する.イギリスが海上覇権を掌握し植民地拡大への道を開く
1816   イギリスで最初の安価な新聞が発行され,英語に影響を与えるマスメディア時代が始まる
1840   ニュージーランドにおいて,イギリス植民地が建設される.イギリスの安価な郵便制度が文字通信の発達を促し,さらに英語が普及する
1858   『新英語辞典』(後に『オックスフォード英語辞典』と称される)の編集作業が始まる
1890--1910   数多くの発明や科学上の発見が,英語に前例のない大きな影響を与える
1899--1901   南アフリカのブール戦争において初期オランダ入植者の子孫が敗北.イギリスの覇権が確立
1914--1918   第1次世界大戦.英語の威信が高まる.フランス語は教育言語として,また外交言語としてさえ,その地位を失い始める(ヴェルサイユ条約がフランス語と英語で書かれる)
1939--1945   第2次世界大戦がさらに,英語の普及を押し進め,その威信を高める


 ・ ヤツェク・フィシャク著,小林 正成・下内 充・中本 明子 訳 『英語史概説 第1巻外面史』 青山社,2006年.

Referrer (Inside): [2013-02-02-1]

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#1377. Gelderen 版,英語史略年表[timeline][history][historiography]

2013-02-02

 [2011-06-13-1]の Crystal 版,[2013-01-24-1]の Fennel 版,[2013-01-25-1]のフィシャク版に引き続き,英語史年表シリーズ.今回は,Gelderen の英語史概説書 (313--17) より抜き書き.概説書にしてもそうだが,年表も,何度も同じもの,違うものを眺めていると,発見があるものである.

8000 BC   Hunter-gatherers move across Europe also into what is now the British Isles
6500 BC   Formation of English Channel
6000 BC   Shift to farming
3000 BC   Stonehenge culture
2500 BC   Bronze Age in Britain
1000 BC   Migrations of Celtic people to Britain begins
600 BC   Iron Age
55 BC--54 BC   Expeditions by Caesar
43   Invasion by Claudius
43--47   South and East England brought under Roman control
50   London founded
70--84   Wales, Northern England, and Scotland under Roman control
100--200   Uprisings in Scotland
122   Hadrian Walls begun
150   Small groups of settlers from the continent
410   Romans withdraw
450   Hengest and Horsa come to Kent ('invited' to hold back the Picts)
455   Hengest rebels against Vortigern
477   Saxons in Sussex
495   Saxons in Wessex
527   Saxon kingdoms in Essex and Middlesex
550   Anglian kingdoms in Mercia, Northumbria, and East Anglia
560   Æthelberht becomes King of Kent
597   Augustine missionaries land in Kent and conversion to Christianity starts
794   Scandinavian attacks on Lindisfarne, Jarrow, Iona and subsequent conquest of Northumbria
865   Scandinavian conquest of East Anglia
871--899   Rule of King Alfred and establishment of the Danelaw
1016--1042   Rule of King Cnut and his heirs
1042--1066   Rule of King Edward (January 1066)
1066   Death of King Edward (January 1066)
1066   King Harold's defeat at Hastings and William of Normandy takes over (December 1066)
1066   William (of Normandy) becomes king (December 1066)
1095   First Crusade
1162   Becket is murdered
1169--1172   Conquest of Ireland
1204   King John loses Normandy to the French
1282--1283   Conquest of Wales
1290   Expulsion of Jews from England
1315--1316   Great Famine
1337--1453   The 100-year War
1349--1351   The Black Death, i.e. plague, kills one-third of the population
1362   Statute of Pleadings (legal proceedings in English)
1381   The Peasants' revolt
1382   Condemnation of Wycliff
1476   Introduction of the printing press by Caxton
1492   Columbus reaches the 'New World'
1497   Cabot reaches Newfoundland, Canada
1504   St John's, Newfoundland, established as the first British colony in North America
1509--1547   Reign of Henry VIII
1534   Act of Supremacy, English monarch becomes head of the Church of England
1536   Monasteries dissembled
1539   English bible in every church
1550   Population of England reaches 3 million
1558--1603   Queen Elizabeth I
1600   The East India Company is granted a charter
1607   Settlement at Jamestown
1611   The King James Bible (KJV)
1612   English presence in Bermuda and in India
1620   Pilgrim fathers establish colony in Plymouth
1624--1630   War between England and Spain
1626--1629   War between England and France
1627--1647   Settlements on Barbados and the Bahamas
1629   Charles I dissolves parliament
1642--1648   First and Second Civil War
1649   Charles I beheaded
1649   Charles II becomes king
1649   Jews officially admitted
1649--1655   Cromwell conquers Ireland
1655   English presence in Jamaica
1653--1660   Cromwell is 'Lord Protector'
1660   Charles II 'restored''
1660   Royal Society founded, to promote science
1670   Hudson Bay Company active
1670--1679   Colonization of West Africa
1688   The Glorious Revolution
1689--1702   Rule of William and Mary
1700   Population of England is 5 million
1707   Act of Union, uniting England and Scotland as the UK
1746   Battle of Culloden; subsequent repression of Scottish Gaelic
1755   Johnson's Dictionary
1759   Wolfe takes Quebec for England
1760--1850   Highland Clearances in Scotland, with resulting emigration and loss of Celtic
1763   Trading in Basra, Iraq
1765--1947   British rule over India
1773   Boston Tea Party
1775--1783   American War of Independence
1776   American Declaration of Independence
1780--1789   Colonies (of convicts) in Australia
1789   French Revolution
1789   George Washington first American president
1791   British colonies in Upper and Lower Canada
1803   Louisiana Purchase
1806   British take over the Cape Colony in South Africa
1806   Webster's Dictionary
1819--1824   Malacca and Singapore occupied by the British
1820--1829   Railroads in the US
1821--1823   Irish famine
1830--1839   Settlement of New Zealand
1834   Slavery abolished in the British Empire
1842   China cedes Hong Kong
1844   First telegraph
1837--1901   Reign of Queen Victoria
1853   Gadsden Purchase
1853   Japan opened to Western trade
1858   Decision to start the OED
1861--1865   American Civil War
1861   British colony in Nigeria
1862   British colony in Honduras
1865   Abolition of slavery in the United States of America
1869   Suez Canal opened
1876   Telephone invented
1884   Berlin Conference determines colonial power in Africa
1886   Annexation of Burma
1890--1899   Rhodesia and Uganda colonized in an attempt to control the Cape-to-Cairo corridor
1880--1902   Boer Wars and British conquest of South Africa
1898   American control over Hawaii, Philippines, and Puerto Rico
1898   Hong Kong and Territories leased to Britain for 99 years
1901   Death of Queen Victoria
1907   Hollywood becomes a filmmaking center
1914--1918   First World War
1916   Easter Uprising, leading to Irish independence in 1921
1918   Women (over 30) get the vote in Britain
1920   Kenya as British colony
1922   BBC starts
1928   OED appears (with supplement in 1933)
1931   Statute of Westminster (former British Dominions de fact independent); British Commonwealth
1939   photocopying invented
1939--1945   Second World war
1942   First computers
1945   United Nations founded
1946   Philippines independent
1947   The independence of India and Pakistan; and New Zealand
1948   Burma and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) independent
1949   NATO founded
1950--1953   Korean War
1951   First computers
1960   Nigeria becomes independent
1960   World population reaches 3 billion
1961--1975   Vietnam War
1963   Kenya becomes independent
1973   Britain joins European Union (confirmed in a 1975 referendum)
1980   CNN starts
1984   Apple PC
1990   Native American Languages Act
1990--1991   Gulf War
1990--1999   Internet becomes major communication tool
1999   World population reaches 6 billion
2000   OED online
2003   Iraq War
2003   In Wales, 20% speak Welsh, up 2.4% in 10 years


(後記 2013/03/18(Mon):同じ年表は Gelderen のコンパニオンサイトより,"Timeline" から閲覧できる.)

 ・ Gelderen, Elly van. A History of the English Language. Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2006.

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