「#4738. 南アフリカ英語の歴史に生じた "swamping"？」 ([2022-04-17-1]) で触れたように，近年，新変種の形成についての関心が高まってきており，様々な学説が登場している．
Millar (40--54) は，対立する3つの新変種形成モデルを念頭に，いくつかの新変種形成の事例を紹介している．Tristan da Cunha English (cf. 「#2311. Tristan da Cunha」 ([2015-08-25-1])), Falkland Islands English (cf. 「#3249. The Falkland Islands」 ([2018-03-20-1])), Newfoundland English (cf. 「#4490. イギリスの北米植民の第2弾と第3弾」 ([2021-08-12-1])), Glaswegian Scots, Milton Keynes and 'Estuary English', Scottish Standard English (cf. 「#1719. Scotland における英語の歴史」 ([2014-01-10-1])) である．その結果わかったことは，いずれの新変種形成モデルにも一長一短があり，事例によってうまく説明できたり，できなかったりするということだ．Millar (55) を引用する．
The formation of new varieties of a language does appear to follow set patterns, based in particular upon the original inputs derived from the linguistic backgrounds of early settlers. A number of scholars --- most notably Trudgill --- are convinced that it would be possible to predict the outcome of this mix from the proportion of different origins in the initial settlement. Others are unconvinced by this argument, in particular in relation to a 'mindless' application of proportions, without reference to personal and group identities and the shifting linguistic attitudes found in all societies. Nevertheless, analyses of this type are useful in making us think about both origins and evolutionary change.
Equally useful, but also suspect, are the concepts of founder effect and swamping. The primary issue with these explanations is that they are very effective in some contexts, but do not seem to have much effect elsewhere . . . . The fact that the two apparently antagonistic views are actually sometimes similar and may well work together under certain circumstances needs to be borne in mind. Whatever their full applicability, both are useful metaphors for how some parts of a population can affect the development of a new variety even when they are not in the majority.
・ Millar, Robert McColl. Contact: The Interaction of Closely Related Linguistic Varieties and the History of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2016.
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