井上逸兵さんとの YouTube の第8弾が公開されました．英語の大人な謝り方---でも、日本人から見るとなんだかなー【井上逸兵・堀田隆一英語学言語学チャンネル #8 】です．前回からの続きものとなります．
謝罪「ごめんなさい」→誓い・意志「二度としません」→意志を問う Will you . . . ? について→Will you . . . ? は本当に丁寧か，のようにアチコチに話しが飛んでいきました．まさに雑談という感じですので．肩の力を抜いて気軽にご視聴ください．
過去数回の動画で，発話行為 (speech_act) が話題の中心となっています．発話行為とは何なのでしょうか．
専門的な語用論 (pragmatics) の立場からいえば「話し手と聞き手のコミュニケーション上の振る舞いとの関連からみた発話の役割」ほどです．しかし，これではよく分かりませんね．
一般には，発話行為には3種類あるとされています．1つは，話し手による発話そのもの (locutionary act；狭い意味での「発話行為」) ．2つめは，話し手の意図，あるいは話し手が発話によって行なっていること (illocutionary act；「発話内行為」) ．3つめは，話し手が発話を通じて聞き手に及ぼす効果 (perlocutionary act；「発話媒介行為」) です．
いくつかの用語辞典で "speech act (theory)" を調べてみました．比較的わかりやすくて短めだった2点を引用しましょう．
speech act theory A theory associated with the work of the British philosopher J. L. Austen, in his 1962 book How to do things with words, which distinguishes between three facets of a speech act: the locutionary act, which has to do with the simple act of a speaker saying something; the illocutionary act, which has to do with the intention behind a speaker's saying something; and the perlocutionary act, which has to do with the actual effect produced by a speaker saying something. The illocutionary force of a speech act is the effect which a speech act is intended to have by the speaker. (Trudgill 125)
speech act A term derived from the work of the philosopher J. L. Austin (1911--60), and now used widely in linguistics, to refer to a theory which analyses the role of utterances in relation to the behaviour of speaker and hearer in interpersonal communication. It is not an 'act of speech' (in the sense of parole), but a communicative activity (a locutionary act), defined with reference to the intentions of speakers while speaking (the illocutionary force of their utterances) and the effects they achieve on listeners (the perlocutionary effect of their utterances). Several categories of speech act have been proposed, viz. directives (speakers try to get their listeners to do something, e.g. begging, commanding, requesting), commissives (speakers commit themselves to a future course of action, e.g. promising, guaranteeing), expressives (speakers express their feelings, e.g. apologizing, welcoming, sympathizing), declarations (the speaker's utterance brings about a new external situation, e.g. christening, marrying, resigning) and representatives (speakers convey their belief about the truth of a proposition, e.g. asserting, hypothesizing). The verbs which are used to indicate the speech act intended by the speaker are sometimes known as performative verbs. The criteria which have to be satisfied in order for a speech act to be a successful are known as felicity conditions. (Crystal 446)
・ 「#2665. 発話行為の適切性条件」 ([2016-08-13-1])
・ 「#2674. 明示的遂行文の3つの特徴」 ([2016-08-22-1])
・ 「#2831. performative hypothesis」 ([2017-01-26-1])
・ 「#1646. 発話行為の比較文化」 ([2013-10-29-1])
・ Trudgill, Peter. A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
・ Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008. 295--96.
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