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#2950. 西ゲルマン語(から最初期古英語にかけての)時代の音変化[sound_change][germanic][oe][vowel][diphthong][phonetics][frisian]

2017-05-25

 「#2942. ゲルマン語時代の音変化」 ([2017-05-17-1]) に引き続き,Hamer (15) より,標題の時代に関係する2つの音変化を紹介する.

Sound changeDescriptionExamples
DThe diphthongs all developed as follows: ai > ā, au > ēa (ēa = ǣa), eu > ēo, iu > īo. (This development of eu and iu was in fact very much later, but it is placed here in the interests of simplification.) 
Ea > æ unless it came before a nasal consonant.dæg, glæd, but land/lond.


 E は Anglo-Frisian Brightening あるいは First Fronting と呼ばれる音過程を指し,Lass (42) によると,以下のように説明される.

The effects can be seen in comparing say OE dæg, OFr deg with Go dags, OIc dagr, OHG tag. (The original [æ] was later raised in Frisian.)
   In outline, AFB turns low back */α/ to [æ], except before nasals (hence OE, OHG mann but dæg vs. tag. It is usually accepted that at some point before AFB (which probably dates from around the early fifth century), */α/ > [α̃] before nasals, and the nasalized vowel blocked AFB.


 AFB は古英語の名詞屈折などにおける厄介な異形態を説明する音変化として重要なので,古英語学習者は気に留めておきたい.

 ・ Hamer, R. F. S. Old English Sound Changes for Beginners. Oxford: Blackwell, 1967.
 ・ Lass, Roger. Old English: A Historical Linguistic Companion. Cambridge: CUP, 1994.

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