#3424. 祈願の might (2)[syntax][word_order][auxiliary_verb][optative][may]


 昨日の記事 ([2018-09-10-1]) の記事に続いて,祈願の might の話題.該当の構文が,Visser (III, §1681) に "Faire myght thee befalle!" タイプとして取り上げられている.古英語から現代英語までの例文が挙っており,O(h)!that が先行する例を含め,構文の発達を考える上で貴重な一覧となっている.以下に引用する.

・ Ælfred, Boeth. (Sedgefield) 34, 6, Eala ðæt ure tida nu ne mihtan weorðan swilce!
・ Blickl. Hom. 69, 7, To hwon sceolde ðeos smyrenes ðus beon to lose ȝedon? eaþe heo mehte beon ȝeseald to þrim hunde peneȝa.
・ c1400--50 Alexander (Ashm.) 1605, 'Ay moȝt he lefe' quod ilka man twyse (OED).
・ c1460 Towneley Myst. 33, Faire myght the[e] befalle!
・ c1460 Wakefield Miracle Play of the Crucifixion (Everym.) Libr. p. 104, That shall I do, so might I thrive!
・ Ibid. p. 105, 29, as might thou the!
・ Ibid. p. 115, 9, as ever might I thrive!
・ 1530 Palsgrave 84, The optative mode which they vse whan they wisshe a dede to be done, as 'bien parle il', well speke he, or well myght he speke.
・ 1575 Gammer Gurton (in: Manly, Spec. II) V, ii, 8, fye on him, wretch! And euil mought he thee for it (Or mought = mote?).
・ 1589--9 Ben Jonson, The Case Is Altered (Everym.) II, i p. 678, That I might live alone once with my gold! O, 'tis sweet companion!
・ 1596 Shakesp., Merch. of Ven. II, ii, 98, Lord worshipt might be, what a beard hast thou got.
・ 1852 M. Arnold, To Marguerite, Cont'd 18, Oh might our marges meet again! (OED).
・ c1920 W. W. Gibson, Waters of Lethe (Coll. Poems 1926), O that we too might stand Amid unrustling reeds, That banner with dark plumes the shadowy strand! . . . O that we two might glide With eager eyes . . . Into the mist that veils the further side!
・ 1931 R. L. Binyon, Prayer (Coll. Poems 1931), O might my love that in one heart has found such hope to cherish . . . O might it grow Till in this clear profound Part of thy peace were seen (Kr).

 例文を全体的に見渡すと,might の祈願文は may の祈願文とおよそ同様の統語構造で用いられており,昨日の記事で OED に依拠して紹介した「条件節の倒置」説だけでは,might 構文の発達の全容は説明づけられないように思われる.
 1530年の例文には構文に関するメタなコメントが含まれており,注目に値する.そこでは,might 構文が接続法の代替表現として解されている.

 ・ Visser, F. Th. An Historical Syntax of the English Language. 3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1963--1973.

Referrer (Inside): [2019-01-28-1]

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