#2616. 政治的な意味合いをもちうる概念メタファー[metaphor][cognitive_linguistics][sapir-whorf_hypothesis][rhetoric][conceptual_metaphor]


 「#2593. 言語,思考,現実,文化をつなぐものとしてのメタファー」 ([2016-06-02-1]) で示唆したように,認知言語学的な見方によれば,概念メタファー (conceptual_metaphor) は思考に影響を及ぼすだけでなく,行動の基盤ともなる.すなわち,概念メタファーは,人々に特定の行動を促す原動力となりうるという点で,政治的に利用されることがあるということだ.
 Lakoff and Johnson の古典的著作 Metaphors We Live By の最終章の最終節に,"Politics" と題する文章が置かれているのは示唆的である.政治ではしばしば「人間性を奪うような」 (dehumanizing) メタファーが用いられ,それによって実際に「人間性の堕落」 (human degradation) が生まれていると,著者らは指摘する.同著の最後の2段落を抜き出そう.

   Political and economic ideologies are framed in metaphorical terms. Like all other metaphors, political and economic metaphors can hide aspects of reality. But in the area of politics and economics, metaphors matter more, because they constrain our lives. A metaphor in a political or economic system, by virtue of what it hides, can lead to human degradation.
   Consider just one example: LABOR IS A RESOURCE. Most contemporary economic theories, whether capitalist or socialist, treat labor as a natural resource or commodity, on a par with raw materials, and speak in the same terms of its cost and supply. What is hidden by the metaphor is the nature of the labor. No distinction is made between meaningful labor and dehumanizing labor. For all of the labor statistics, there is none on meaningful labor. When we accept the LABOR IS A RESOURCE metaphor and assume that the cost of resources defined in this way should be kept down, then cheap labor becomes a good thing, on a par with cheap oil. The exploitation of human beings through this metaphor is most obvious in countries that boast of "a virtually inexhaustible supply of cheap labor"---a neutral-sounding economic statement that hides the reality of human degradation. But virtually all major industrialized nations, whether capitalist or socialist, use the same metaphor in their economic theories and policies. The blind acceptance of the metaphor can hide degrading realities, whether meaningless blue-collar and white-collar industrial jobs in "advanced" societies or virtual slavery around the world.

 "LABOUR IS A RESOURCE" という概念メタファーにどっぷり浸かった社会に生き,どっぷり浸かった生活を送っている個人として,この議論には反省させられるばかりである.一方で,(反省しようと決意した上で)実際に反省することができるということは,当該の概念メタファーによって,人間の思考や行動が完全に拘束されるわけではないということにもなる.概念メタファーと思考・行動の関係に関する議論は,サピア=ウォーフの仮説 (sapir-whorf_hypothesis) を巡る議論とも接点が多い.

 ・ Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1980.

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