標題は，現代英語の統語論でしばしば取り上げられる話題である．付加語 (adjunct) と呼ばれる副詞相当語句が連鎖するとき，どのような順序で配置されるのだろうか．Quirk et al. (§8.87) が "Relative positions of adjuncts" にて概説してくれているので，それを丸々引用したい．
In the relevant sections, we have given indications of the norms of position in respect of each class of adjunct. We turn now to consider the positions of adjunct classes in respect of each other. Two general principles can be stated, applying to relative order whether within a class or between classes:
(i) The relative order, especially of sentence adjuncts, can be changed to suit the demands of information focus . . . .
(ii) Shorter adjuncts tend to precede longer ones, and in practice this often means that adverbs precede noun phrases, which precede prepositional phrases, which precede nonfinite clauses, which precede finite clauses.
Subject to these general principles, where adjuncts cluster in E [= end] position, the normal order is:
respect --- process --- space --- time --- contingency
It would be highly unusual to find all such five at E (or indeed all such five in the same clause), but for the purposes of exemplification we might offer the improbable and stylistically objectional (sic). . .:
John was working on his hobby [respect] with the new shears [process] in the rose garden [place] for the whole of his day off [time] to complete the season's pruning [contingency].
The same point could be made more acceptably (but at greater length) by forming a series of sentences, each with any two of these adjuncts.
Adjuncts that can occur at I (= initial) are usually those that either have relatively little information value in the context (eg in reflecting what can be taken for granted) or are relatively inclusive or 'scene-setting' in their semantic role (eg an adjunct of time). Thus:
That whole morning, he devoted himself to his roses.
Not only is the adjunct at I one of time, but the anaphoric that indicates that the period concerned has already been mentioned. It is unusual to have more than one adjunct at I except where one is realized by a pro-form (especially then), but they would tend to be in the reverse order to that observed at E. In practice, this usually means:
space --- time or process --- time
In America [A1], after the election [A2], trade began to improve.
Slowly [A1] during this period [A2] people were becoming more prosperous.
・ Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.
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