#3784. ローマン・ブリテンの言語状況 (1)[roman_britain][latin][celtic][history][sociolinguistics][bilingualism]


 Claudius 帝によるブリテンの征服が成った43年から,ローマが撤退する410年までのローマン・ブリテン時代には,言語状況はいかなるものだったのか.ケルト系言語とラテン語はどのくらい共存しており,どの程度のバイリンガル社会だったのか.これらの問題については正確なことが明らかにされておらず,およそ推測の域を出ないが,1つの見解として Durkin (57--58) の説明に耳を傾けてみよう

Unfortunately for our purposes, the linguistic situation is one of the things about which we know the least. During the period of Roman imperial domination, Latin was certainly the language of administration and of much of the elite; what is much less certain, and rather hotly disputed, is whether it was also the language of the 'man in the street', and if it was, whether it remained so in more troubled times before the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons. The assumption made by most scholars is that Latin had relatively little currency outside the urban areas; that (some form of) Celtic was the crucial lingua franca; while auxiliaries recruited from many locations both inside and outside the Roman Empire probably spoke their own native languages. There were certainly Germani among such auxiliaries. There were probably also slaves of Germanic origin in Britain and in the later stages of Roman Britain there were also certainly at least some mercenaries and other irregular forces of Germanic origin, and some settlements associated with such people. They may have been quite numerous, but it is unlikely that they had any significant impact on the subsequent linguistic history of Britain.

 ローマン・ブリテン時代にさかのぼる地名の話題については「#3440. ローマ軍の残した -chester, -caster, -cester の地名とその分布」 ([2018-09-27-1]),「#3454. なぜイングランドにラテン語の地名があまり残らなかったのか?」 ([2018-10-11-1]) を参照.

 ・ Durkin, Philip. Borrowed Words: A History of Loanwords in English. Oxford: OUP, 2014.

Referrer (Inside): [2019-09-08-1]

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