最近の「#2562. Mugglestone （編）の英語史年表」 ([2016-05-02-1]) に引き続き，英語史年表シリーズ．Momma and Matto の英語史コンパニオンの pp. xxix--xxxiii に掲げられている年表を再現する．後期近代英語期について，言語教育，言語権 (linguistic_right)，言語計画 (linguistic_planning) などの応用社会言語学的な項目が多く立てられている点に，この年表の特徴がある．
1000 BCE Indo-European languages spread throughout Europe and southern Asia, some already attested in writing for hundreds of years. ca. 1000--1 BCE Gradual sound shifts (Grimm's Law) take place in Germanic languages. 55--54 BCE Julius Caesar invades Britain. 43 CE Romans under Claudius conquer Britain; the "Roman Britain" period begins. ca. 50--100 Scandinavian Runic inscriptions are produced, which remain the oldest attestations of a Germanic language. ca. 98 Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus writes ''Germania''. ca. 350 Bishop Wulfila translates the Bible into Gothic, an East Germanic language. 410 roman troops withdraw from Britain as Visigoths sack Rome; the "Roman Britain" period ends. 449 According to tradition,Anglo-Saxons (Angles, Saxons, Jutes) begin invasion and settlement of Britain, bringing their West Germanic dialects to the islands. 597 Pope Gregory sends Augustine to Kent where he converts King Æthelberht and 10,000 other Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. 793--ca. 900 Vikings (Danes, Norwegians, Swedes) raid England periodically and establish settlements. 878 King Alfred's victory over Guthrum's Danish army at Edington paves the way for the creation of the Kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons. 886 King Alfred and Guthrum sign a treaty establishing the "Dane law" north and east of London, heavily settled by the Norse-speaking vikings. 890s King Alfred translates Pope Gregory's ''Regula pastoralis'' into English. ca. 900 Bede's ''Ecclesiastical History'' is translated from Latin into Old English. ca. 975--1025 The four great manuscripts containing Old English poetry (Exeter Book, Junius Manuscript, Vercelli Book, and ''Beowulf'' Manuscript) are compiled, though many of the texts they contain were likely composed over the previous 300 years. 993--5 Aelfric composes his Latin-Old English ''Glossary''. 1066 William the Conqueror leads the Norman conquest of England, solidifying French as the language of the nobility. 1171 Henry II leads the Cambro-Norman invasion of Ireland, bringing French and English speakers to the island. 1204 King John of England loses Normandy to France. ca. 1245 Walter of Bibbesworth compiles his ''Tretiz de Langage'' to improve the French of English-speaking Landowners. 1282 Wales is conquered by King Edward I of England. 1348--50 The Black Plague kills about one-third of the English population. 1362 Statute of Pleading requires English be spoken in law courts. 1366 Statutes of Kilkenny outlaw (among other Irish customs) speaking Irish by Englishmen in Ireland. 1370--1400 Chaucer writes his major works. 1380s John Wycliffe and his followers illegally translate the Latin Vulgate Bible into English. 1380--1450 Chancery standard written English is developed. ca. 1450 Johannes Gutenberg establishes the printing press in Germany. 1476 William Caxton sets up the first printing press in England. 1492 Christopher Columbus explores the Caribbean and Central America. 1497 Italian navigator John Cabot explores Newfoundland. 1500--1650 Great Vowel Shift takes place. 1525 William Tyndale prints an English translation of the New Testament. 1534 The first complete English translation of the Bible from the original Greek and Hebrew is produced. 1536 and 1543 Acts of Union (Laws in Wales Acts) annex Wales to England. 1542 Crown of Ireland Act makes the English king also the Irish king. 1558--1603 Queen Elizabeth I reigns. ca. 1575--1600 English becomes an important trade language in West Africa. 1580s--1612 Shakespeare composes his plays. 1583--1607 British attempt unsuccessfully to establish colonies in America. 1588 The Bible is translated into Welsh. 1589 George Puttenham publishes his ''Art of English Poesy''. 1600 British East India Company receives its charter, facilitating economic expansion into India. 1600s Atlantic slave trade begins, bringing Africans to America. 1603 Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England and Scotland, accelerating the Anglicization of Scots-English. 1604 Robert Cawdrey compiles ''A Table Alphabeticall'', the first monolingual English dictionary. 1607 The Virginia Company of London successfully establishes a colony in America at Jamestown, Virginia. 1610 British establish fishing outposts in Newfoundland. 1611 The King James Bible is published. 1620 Pilgrims establish a colony at Plymouth Rock. 1623--ca. 1660 British establish colonies throughout Caribbean. 1642--51 English Civil Wars are ongoing. 1660 The Restoration: Charles II returns to the throne. 1663 The Royal Society is founded. 1689 British establish the three administrative districts of Bengal, Bombay (now Mumbai), Madras (now Chennai) on the Indian subcontinent. 1694 French publish a national dictionary. 1695 The Licensing Act expires, giving anyone the freedom to publish without government permission. 1707 Acts of Union unite governments of England and Scotland, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. 1712 Jonathan Swift writes his "Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue.". 1755 Samuel Johnson's ''Dictionary of the English Language'' is published. French-speaking Acadians are expelled from Canada by British, settle in Louisiana and are called Cajuns. 1773 British establish a Governor Generalship in India. 1776 Thomas Jefferson drafts American Declaration of Independence. 1780s British begin to settle in Australia. 1783 Treaty of Paris recognizes an independent United States of America; Noah Webster's "blue-back" spelling book is published. 1786 William Jones suggests a common root for Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, promoting comparative linguistics and Indo-European studies. 1787 English speakers of African origin are repatriated to Africa in Freetown, Sierra Leone. 1789--99 The French Revolution takes place. 1795 Lindley Murray's ''English Grammar'' is published. 1800 Act of Union unites governments of Ireland and Great Britain, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and requiring that Irish politicians speak English in British government. 1803 The Louisiana Purchase allows US to expand westward. 1811--18 Jane Austen's novels and published. 1819 The British government passes the Six Acts, aimed to suppress the publication of radical newspapers. 1820 Freed English-speaking slaves repatriated from America to the newly created West African nation of Liberia. 1828 Noah Webster's ''Dictionary of American English'' is published. 1831 A system of Primary School Education is introduced in Ireland, with English as the medium of instruction. 1835 Lord Macaulay's Minute initiates the introduction of English language education into South Asia. 1836 The phrase "standard English" first appears in a philological sketch on the history of the language in the ''Quarterly Review''. 1837--1901 Queen Victoria reigns. 1840s British begin to settle in New Zealand. 1845--9 Many monoglot Irish speakers die as a result of the Great Famine in Ireland. 1852 ''Roget's Thesaurus'' is first published. 1858 Act for the Better Government of India results in the British governing India directly. 1859 ''Proposal for the Publication of a New English Dictionary'' initiates work on what will be the ''Oxford English Dictionary''. 1873 Harvard University introduces the first American college program in English composition for native speakers. 1898 Americans take over control of the Philippines from Spain, beginning America's colonial period. 1914--39 James Joyce's major works are published. 1922 Ratification of the Anglo-Irish Treaty recognizes an independent Irish Free State, which will become the Republic of Ireland. 1925 The Phelps-Stokes Commission recommends teaching both English and native languages in Africa. 1926--62 William Faulkner's major works are published. 1928 ''Oxford English Dictionary'' is completed. 1946 The Philippines achieve independence from the United States. 1947 India achieves independence from Britain; Pakistan splits from India. 1953 English made a compulsory subject in national examinations in elementary schools throughout Anglophone Africa. 1957--68 Most of Britain's African colonies achieve independence. 1967 The Official languages Act makes English and Hindi India's two official languages. Tanzania launches a "Swahilization" program. 1970- Toni Morrison's major works are published. 1875-- Salman Rushdie's major works are published. 1979 Lawsuit (''Martin Luther King Jr Elementary School Children vs. Ann Arbor School District Board'') sets precedent for requiring teachers to study AAVE. Urdu replaces English as the language of instruction in schools in Pakistan. 1991 Helsinki corpus of English words from the Old English period through 1720 is completed. 1993 Welsh Language Act makes Welsh an official language in Wales alongside English. 1996--7 The "Ebonics" debates begin in Oakland, California. 1998 The Good Friday Agreement grants "parity of esteem" to the Irish language and to Ulster Scots (Ullans) in Northern Ireland.
・ Momma, Haruko and Michael Matto, eds. A Companion to the History of the English Language. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
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