#592. Hobson-Jobson[indian_english][dictionary][lexicography]


 Anglo-Indian の語彙集の古典といえば,1886年初版の出版された Hobson-Jobson と通称される辞書である.16世紀から19世紀終わりまでのあいだに東方交易ルートで集められた Anglo-Indian 語彙集で,インドの諸言語のみならずアラビア語を含めたアジア諸語に由来する語も収録している.したがって,"Indian" とはいってもインドを中心とした南アジア広域を覆っているし,また "Anglo" とはいっても多くの語は英語以外にフランス語やポルトガル語へも入っているので,守備範囲の広い特異な語彙集である.見出し語は英語化された Victoria 朝の綴字で配列されている.語の由来や用例が豊富である.
 2版のものがデジタル化されており,こちらで検索可能である.題名となった Anglo-Indian の単語 Hobson-Jobson については,辞書内の見出し HOBSON-JOBSON を参照.ただし,この題名の由来とその選択の背景については曖昧な点も多く,ややふざけた響きから出版当初は子供っぽいだとか人をけなしているようだとか批判されたようである.しかし,すぐに内容としての価値が高く評価され,エントリーのいくつかは OED にも反映された.
 "Anglo-Indian words" の指す範囲は広く,定義は難しいが,Front Matter の説明で概要はつかめる.

In its original conception it was intended to deal with all that class of words which, not in general pertaining to the technicalities of administration, recur constantly in the daily intercourse of the English in India, either as expressing ideas really not provided for by our mother-tongue, or supposed by the speakers (often quite erroneously) to express something not capable of just denotation by any English term. A certain percentage of such words have been carried to England by the constant reflux to their native shore of Anglo-Indians, who in some degree imbue with their notions and phraseology the circles from which they had gone forth. This effect has been still more promoted by the currency of a vast mass of literature, of all qualities and for all ages, dealing with Indian subjects; as well as by the regular appearance, for many years past, of Indian correspondence in English newspapers, insomuch that a considerable number of the expressions in question have not only become familiar in sound to English ears, but have become naturalised in the English language, and are meeting with ample recognition in the great Dictionary edited by Dr. Murray at Oxford. (xv--xvi)

 ・ Yule, Henry and A. C. Burnell, eds. Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive. 1st ed. 1886. 2nd ed. Ed. William Crooke. London: Murray, 1903. 2nd ed. reprinted as Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary. Ware: Wordsworth, 1996.
 ・ Crystal, David. Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices. London: The British Library, 2010. 147.

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