堀田 隆一 （慶應義塾大学）
「hellog〜英語史ブログ」 url: http://user.keio.ac.jp/~rhotta/hellog/
The dialect of English which is normally used in writing, is spoken by educated native speakers, and is taught to non-native speakers studying the language. There is no single accent associated with this dialect, but the lexicon and grammar of the dialect have been subject to codification in numerous dictionaries and grammars of the English language. Standard English is a polycentric standard variety, with English, Scottish, American, Australian and other standard varieties differing somewhat from one another. All other dialects can be referred to collectively as nonstandard English. (Trudgill)
diffuse vs focused (#3207):
Diffuse linguistic communities tend to be those where little standardisation or codification have taken place, where there is relatively little agreement about norms of usage, where speakers show little concern for marking off their language variety from other varieties, and where they may accord relatively little importance even to what their language is called. (Trudgill)
The bamboo is harvested in autumn and dried slowly so that the finished product does not warp.
In all likelihood it was the following autumn that they left for Florida by train . . . .
The autumn weather was brisk and lovely.
admonish, advance, advantage, adventure, advice, aisle, amethyst, anthem, apothecary, assault, author, authority, baptism, captive, cauldron, choir, choler, cognizance, convent, corps, could, debt, delight, describe, diphthong, doubt, echo, elephant, endorse, eunuch, falcon, fault, foreign, harmony, heresy, hymn, indict, island, language, lethargy, nephew, orthography, parliament, perfect, phantasm, phantom, pheasant, receipt, rhyme, salmon, scent, sceptre, schedule, schism, scissors, scythe, sovereign, sphere, stomach, subtle, throne, thyme, tongue, vault, verdict, victual, etc.
they laugh that wins (F1--3, Q1--3; win F4) (Shakespeare, Othello 4.1.121
when sorrows comes (F1), they come not single spies. (Shakespeare, Hamlet 4.5.73)
For if neither they can doo that they promise & wantes greatest good (Elizabeth, Boethius 48.11)
Harlem の青年集団の調査で42--100% （平均すると 63%），Detroit の下流労働者階級の調査で71.4%，5歳児の調査で72.%，Oakland の下流階級の女性の調査で57.7%，Washington, D. C. の子供の調査で84%，Washington, D. C. の下流階級の調査で65.3%，下流階級の説教師の調査で17--78%，Maryland の学生の調査で83.3%などである．-s の脱落が支配的であることは確かだが，一方で，大雑把にいって3回に1回は -s が現われているということでもあり，脱落が規則的であるということはできない．（#1889 より引用）