#1625. 中英語期の書き言葉における code-switching[code-switching][me][bilingualism]


 「#1470. macaronic lyric」 ([2013-05-06-1]) で紹介したとおり,中英語期には,複数の言語が切り替わる詩作がみられた.一見するところ,第1言語と第2言語との稚拙な混合のように思えるが,その文体的効果を吟味すれば意図的な code-switching であったことがわかる.中英語期における体系的ともいえるこのような code-switching は,叙情詩のみならず,散文を含めたほとんどのジャンルに観察される.例えば,Wright は,"medical writings, other scientific texts, legal texts, administrative texts, sermons, other religious prose texts, literary prose, poems, drama, accounts, inventories, rule-books and letters" (148) を挙げている.Wright (148--49) は散文からの具体例として以下の2つを挙げている.

1. Religious prose text in English and Latin: sermon (early fifteenth century)

Domini gouernouris most eciam be merciful in punchyng. Oportet ipsos attendere quod of stakis and stodis qui deberent stare in ista vinea quedam sunt smoþe and lightlich wul boo, quedam sunt so stif and so ful of warris quod homo schal to-cleue hom cicium quam planare.

(The lord's governors must also be merciful in punishing. They should take notice of the stakes and supports that should stand in this vineyard, some are smooth and will easily bend, others are so stiff and so full of obstinacy that a man will split them sooner than straighten them out.)

2. Letter in English and Anglo-Norman: from R. Kingston to King Henry IV (1403)

Tresexcellent, trespuissant, et tresredoute Seignour, autrement say a present nieez. Jeo prie a la benoit trinite que vous ottroie bone vie ove tresentier sauntee a treslonge durre, and sende yowe sone to ows in helþ and prosperitee; for in god fey, I hope to almighty god that, yef ye come youre owne persone, ye schulle haue the victorie of alle youre enemyes.

(Most excellent, mighty and revered Sir, otherwise I know nothing at present. I pray to the blessed trinity to grant you a good life with the fullest health of the longest duration, and send you soon to us in health and prosperity; for in good faith, I hope to almighty God that, if you come yourself, you shall have a victory over all your enemies.)

 code-switching 研究では,話し手(書き手)は言語を切り替えることにより,社会言語学的あるいは語用論的な効果を意図しているということが話題にされる.Wright (149) 曰く,

It has often been assumed that texts which show code-switching are indicative of an ill-educated scribe, who did not know the other languages fully. However, studies on present-day code-switching show that, on the contrary, the speakers usually have a full grasp of both languages, but choose to switch for social and discourse-pragmatic reasons. Similarly, it can frequently be demonstrated that the scribe of a code-switched text did in fact command the grammar and vocabulary of all the languages used, but that he chose to combine them. At present, we are not fully sensitive to the discourse-pragmatic reasons for medieval code-switching, and it is one of the things to which the present-day reader of a medieval text is deaf. (149)

 上記のように古い時代の書き言葉に現れる code-switching の意図を読み取ることは困難を極めるが,これらの場合において "social and discourse-pragmatic reasons" がはたして何だったのか,現代語の code-switching 研究により,何かヒントが見いだせるかもしれない.

 ・ Wright, Laura. "The Languages of Medieval Britain." A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture: c.1350--c.1500. Ed. Peter Brown. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 143--58.

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