#4611. marriage, carriage の語中音消失[vowel][sound_change][emode][spelling_pronunciation][yod-dropping]


 昨日の記事「#4610. marriage, carriage, verbiage」 ([2021-12-10-1]) を書いた後に少し調べてみたところ,Dobson (Vol. 2, §308) に関連する記述を見つけた.以下は "Syncope of the pretonic vowel" と見出しのつけられた節からの引用である.

When two vowels occur in hiatus there is a marked tendency towards syncope of the less stressed vowel, especially when it is the first of the two. The commonest case in ModE is in words with the ending -iage (carriage, &c.), in which syncope of the i occurs; the surviving vowel is ME ă . . . , which becomes [ə] and then unstressed [ɪ] . . . . This syncope is not shown by Bullokar; but Gil has mariǧabl 'marriageable', Price, Lye, Cooper, The Compendious School-Master, Cocker, and Brown say that i is silent in marriage, &c., and Coles (followed by Strong and Young) has the 'phonetic spellings' carridg, marridg. Pharaoh has silent a in Hodges. Atheist and atheism have syncope of the e in Lye, WSC, Brown, and the shorthand-writer Everardt. Geometry is commonly said to have 'silent e' by seventeenth-century spelling-books; exceptions are Brooksbank, who says the e was not sounded 'till of late', and The English Schole-Master (1646), which says that in geometry and George the eo has the sounds of both vowels, but not so distinctly as when they are apart---a remark which, in this source, may mean no more than that the e serves to 'soften' the g.

 初期近代英語期には,marriage, carriage のような音環境をもつ語では語中音消失 (syncope) は普通に起こっていたことが分かる.一方,現代の発音ではそのような語中音消失を経ていないかのような語も残っており,その場合の発音は綴字の力により保持・復元された可能性が高い.つまり綴字発音 (spelling_pronunciation) である.
 中尾 (323) にも marriage, carriage に関する記述を見つけた.近代英語期の上記の音環境での語中音消失の例として,以下を挙げている.

carriage / marriage / atheist / collier>collar / saviour>saver // creature / diamond / violet / vehment / vehicle

 また,中尾 (423) は,marriage, carriage などを近代英語期の [j]-削除 (yod-dropping) の例としても挙げている.

tedous(=tedious) / genus(=genius) / delirous / comisson / recomendacon(=recommendation) / passonate(=passionate) / queston(=question) / experence(=experience) / carrage(=carriage) / marrage(=marriage) / opinon(=opinion) / curous(=curious) / varous(=various)

 昨日私は「音変化のルート」における1過程として「弱化・短化・同化」という濁した表現を用いたが,Dobson と中尾は「消失」とみなしていることに注意.

 ・ Dobson, E. J. English Pronunciation 1500--1700. 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1957. 2 vols.
 ・ 中尾 俊夫 『音韻史』 英語学大系第11巻,大修館書店,1985年.

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