#4552. borrowing, transfer, convergence[terminology][contact][borrowing][language_shift]


 言語接触 (contact) に関わる標題の3つの重要な用語を解説する.このような用語を用いる際に注意すべき点は,論者によって何を指すかが異なり得ることだ.ここでは当該分野の専門家である Hickey (486--87) の定義を引用したい.

(1) Borrowing. Items/structures are copied from language X to language Y, but without speakers of Y shifting to X. In this simple form, borrowing is characteristic of "cultural" contact (e.g. Latin and English in the history of the latter, or English and other European languages today). Such borrowings are almost exclusively confined to words and phrases.
(2) Transfer. During language shift, when speakers of language X are switching to language Y, they transfer features of their original native language X to Y. Where these features are not present in Y they represent an innovation. For grammatical structures one can distinguish (i) categories and (ii) their realizations, either or both of which can be transferred.
(3) Convergence. A feature in language X has an internal source (i.e. there is a systemic motivation for the feature within language X), and the feature is present in a further language Y with which X is in contact. Both internal and external sources "converge" to produce the same result as with the progressive form in English. . . .

 この3つの区分は,接触に起因する過程の agentivity が X, Y のいずれの言語話者側にあるのか,あるいは両側にあるのかに対応するといってよい.この agentivity の観点については「#3968. 言語接触の2タイプ,imitation と adaptation」 ([2020-03-08-1]),「#3969. ラテン語,古ノルド語,ケルト語,フランス語が英語に及ぼした影響を比較する」 ([2020-03-09-1]) も参照.

 ・ Hickey, Raymond. "Assessing the Role of Contact in the History of English." Chapter 37 of The Oxford Handbook of the History of English. Ed. Terttu Nevalainen and Elizabeth Closs Traugott. New York: OUP, 2012. 485--96.

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