#1753. interpretorinterpreter (3)[spelling][suffix]


 「#1740. interpretorinterpreter」 ([2014-01-31-1]) 及び昨日の記事「#1752. interpretorinterpreter (2)」 ([2014-02-12-1]) に引き続いての話題.
 Marchand (221--22) によると,中英語から近代英語にかけての状況を指すものと思われるが,-er, -or, -ar などの種々の動作主接尾辞が -er へ一本化する大きな流れと,それに対して -or, -ar などへと向かう小さな逆流がともに存在したという.

Variants in -or are sailor 1642, orig. sailer LME, vendor 1594 (AE also vender), editor (cp. to edit), conqueror (cp. conquer), visitor (formerly -er, cp. visit), operator(cp. operate), survivor (coined as a legal term 1503; in law terms the spelling -or with pronunciation [ɔ(r)] is usual), director (cp. direct) and many others. / . . . . Original loans from French (ending in -ier, -our, -oir) which had a verb or a suffixless noun to go with, naturally came to be felt as derivatives. Examples are: farmer, jeweller, gardener / miner, commander / dresser, counter. On the other hand, classical influence produced a certain counter-action in the 16th and 17th c. insofar as -er words received a Latinizing spelling in -ar or -or . . . . There are thus two opposite currents: one is to assimilate foreign elements to the native -er, and the other to introduce a learned or pseudo-learned element. The latter is responsible for the frequent AE pronunciation [ɔ(r)] in creator, actor a.o. / Latin-coined words in -ator also contain the sf -er for the present-day linguistic feeling. Their stress is dictated by that of the underlying verb in -ate: génerate/génerator, oríginate/oríginator. Between 1550 and 1750 the stress was often on the penult, after the Latin accentuation (see B. Danielsson 137--142).

 Marchand の言う通りだとすると,interpreter は,-or から -er へのより一般的な潮流に乗った語例の1つということになる.どの語がどちらの潮流に乗ることになったのかという問題に対して,歴史的に,言語学的にどこまで切り込めるかはわからず,これ以上踏み込むのはためらわれるが,今後,諸例に遭遇する際には注意しておきたいと思う.

 ・ Marchand, Hans. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-Formation: A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach. 2nd. ed. München: Beck, 1969.

[ 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ | コメント ]

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow