#5535. 接頭辞 en- と in- の揺れを Chancery English でみる[prefix][latin][french][loan_word][chancery_standard][etymology][spelling]


 英語には ensure/insureencase/incase, entitle/intitle, embed/imbed, enclose/inclose, enwrap/inwrap など,接頭辞が en- と in- で揺れるペアがある.意味や用法が異なる場合もあれば,形態上の英米差を示す場合もあるし,単なる異形・異綴字である場合もある.それもそのはず,この接頭辞の起源は一つなのだ.ラテン語 in- に由来するフランス語の形態が en- なのである.
 この2つの異形態は,歴史的には,現代以上に揺れていたようだ.目下私が注目している15世紀の Chancery English では,相当の揺れがみられる.Fisher et al. (33) を引用する.

   Since prefixes were unaccented, they were subject to the same kinds of irregularities and inconsistencies as the inflectional endings. Adding to the confusion was the lack of standardization of often competing Latin- and French-derived prefixes such as in, im, en, and em.
   Many words with prefixes beginning in in/im in MnE were written with en/em prefixes in Chancery documents. One explanation for this is the continuing French influence; another is the drift towards e as the regular vowel in unaccented syllables, noted above. But the relative strength of each explanation is difficult to determine. In any case, en prefixes where MnE requires in are sometimes preferred in Chancery writing. There are, for example, 33 instances of entent(e) as opposed to one of intent, and that in an ecclesiastical petition (153.8) where the Latin in would be expected. Likewise we have endenture and its plurals 25 times and indenture/indentures only six times, five of them in non-Chancery items (238 and 239). Informed is found once (as a past participle, 146.9), while variants of the infinitive enforme are the clear preference, with 27 listings. Other cases where the en form is preferred include enheritaunce and endented. Prefixes beginning with im in MdE show the same kind of variation, with preferences for empechment and enprisoned.

 Chancery English は現代標準綴字の萌芽を示すと評価されることが多いが,このようにいまだ揺れは相当に大きい.今回は en-/in- をもつ語彙に限ってみたが,他の一般の語彙についても事情はおおよそ同じだ.英語史における綴字標準化の道のりは長かったのである.今回取り上げた接頭辞と関連して,以下の記事も要参照.

 ・ 「#1877. 動詞を作る接頭辞 en- と接尾辞 -en」 ([2014-06-17-1])
 ・ 「#4241. なぜ語頭や語末に en をつけると動詞になるのですか? --- hellog ラジオ版」 ([2020-12-06-1])
 ・ 「#3510. 接頭辞 en- をもつ動詞は品詞転換の仲間?」 ([2018-12-06-1])

 ・ Fisher, John H., Malcolm Richardson, and Jane L. Fisher, comps. An Anthology of Chancery English. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1984. 392.

Referrer (Inside): [2024-06-27-1] [2024-06-23-1]

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