#5508. be to do 構文の古英語での用法は原則として受動態的だった[be_to_do][syntax][infinitive][auxiliary_verb][oe][construction][latin][voice]


 一昨日の記事「#5506. be to do 構文は古英語からあった」 ([2024-05-24-1]) に引き続き be to do 構文の歴史について.
 この構文は古英語から観察されるが,伝統的な説として,ラテン語の対応構文のなぞりではないかという議論がある.その背景には,主にラテン語からの翻訳文献に現われること,そしてラテン語の対応構文と連動して受動態 (passive) の意味で用いられるのが普通であるという事実が背景にある.異なる説もあるので慎重に議論する必要があるが,ここではラテン語影響説を支持する Mustanoja (524--25) より,関連箇所を引用しよう.


   INFINITIVE WITH 'To' AS A PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (THE TYPE 'TO BE TO'). --- The construction to be to, implying futurity and often obligation (the infinitive being originally that of purpose), is comparatively infrequent in OE and early ME, but becomes more common in later ME and early Mod. E. It probably arose under Latin influence, the infinitive with to being used to render the Latin future participle (-urus) or gerundive (-ndus), as in wæron fram him ece mede to onfonne ('aeterna ab illo praemia essent percepturi') and he is to gehyrenne ('audiendus est'). In OE this infinitive occurs mostly in a passive sense (he is to gehyrenne; --- hu fela psalma to singenne synt 'quanti psalmi dicendi sunt'). This usage continues in ME and even today. ME examples: --- þi luve . . . oþer heo is to ȝiven allunge oþer he is for to sullen, oþer heo is for to reaven and to nimen mid strengþe (Ancr. 181); --- that ston was gretly for to love (RRose 1091). The periphrastic passive appears in the 14th century: --- þey beþ to be blamed (RMannyng HS 1546).
   In OE the predicative infinitive of this type is comparatively seldom found with an active meaning (wæron ece mede to onfonne 'aeterna praemia . . . essent percepturi'). This use continues to be rare in early ME, but becomes more frequent later in the period. In many instances the implication of futurity is faint or practically non-existent: --- þes fikelares mester is to wrien ant te helien þet gong þurl (Ancr. 36); --- al mi rorde is woning ant to ihire grislich þing (Owl&N 312); --- myn entencioun Nis nat to yow of reprehensioun To speke as now (Ch. TC i 685). In many instances, however, the implication of futurity is prominent: --- Crystes tresore, Þe which is mannes oule to save, as God seith in þe Gospel (PPl. B x 474); --- whan the sonne was to reste, so hadde I spoken with hem everichon (Ch. CT A Prol. 30). There are scholars who believe that this construction is used as a real future equivalent in late ME.


 ・ 「#3604. なぜ The house is building. で「家は建築中である」という意味になるのか?」 ([2019-03-10-1])
 ・ 「#3605. This needs explaining. --- 「need +動名詞」の構文」 ([2019-03-11-1])
 ・ 「#3611. なぜ He is to blame.He is to be blamed. とならないのか?」 ([2019-03-17-1])
 ・ 「#4104. なぜ He is to blame.He is to be blamed. とならないのですか? --- hellog ラジオ版」 ([2020-07-22-1])

 引用にもある通り,この be to do 構文は後に能動態的にも用いられるように拡張し,現在に至っている.

 ・ Mustanoja, T. F. A Middle English Syntax. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 1960.

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