#5437. phonotacitcs 「音素配列論」[phonotactics][graphotactics][terminology][linguistics][phonology][morphology][linearity]


 一昨日の heldio で「#1018. sch- よもやま話」をお届けした.英語では sch- の綴字が比較的珍しいことなどを話題にしたが,これは文字素配列論 (graphotactics) の問題である.
 この文字素配列論の背後にあるのが音素配列論 (phonotactics) である.各言語における音素の並び順に注目する音韻論の1分野だ.2つの用語辞典より,phonotactics について関連する別の用語とともに紹介したい.まずは,Crystal より.

phonotactics (n.)  A term used in PHONOLOGY to refer to the sequential ARRANGEMENTS (or tactic behaviour) of phonological UNITS which occur in a language --- what counts as a phonologically well-formed word. In English, for example, CONSONANT sequences such as /fs/ and /spm/ do not occur INITIALLY in a word, and there are many restrictions on the possible consonant+VOWEL combinations which may occur, e.g. /ŋ/ occurs only after some short vowels /ɪ, æ, ʌ, ɒ/. These 'sequential constraints' can be stated in terms of phonotactic rules. Generative phonotactics is the view that no phonological principles can refer to morphological structure; any phonological patterns which are sensitive to morphology (e.g. affixation) are represented only in the morphological component of the grammar, not in the phonology. See also TAXIS.

taxis (n.)  A general term used in PHONETICS and LINGUISTICS to refer to the systematic arrangements of UNITS in LINEAR SEQUENCE at any linguistic LEVEL. The commonest terms based on this notion are: phonotactics, dealing with the sequential arrangements of sounds; morphotactics with MORPHEMES; and syntactics with higher grammatical units than the morpheme. Some linguistic theories give this dimension of analysis particular importance (e.g. STRATIFICATIONAL grammar, where several levels of tactic organization are recognized, corresponding to the strata set up by the theory, viz. 'hypophonotactics', 'phonotactics', 'morphotactics', 'lexicotactics', 'semotactics' and 'hypersemotactics'). See also HARMONIC PHONOLOGY.

 次に Bussmann より.

phonotactics  Study of the sound and phoneme combinations allowed in a given language. Every language has specific phonotactic rules that describe the way in which phonemes can be combined in different positions (initial, medial, and final). For example, in English the stop + fricative cluster /ɡz/ can only occur in medial (exhaust) or final (legs), but not in initial position, and /h/ can only occur before, never after, a vowel. The restrictions are partly language-specific and partly universal.

 言語は,その線状性 (linearity) ゆえに要素の並び順,組み合わせ方を重視せざるを得ない.その点では,音素配列論に限らず -tactics は必然的に言語学的な意義をもつ領域だろう.また,--tactics が通時的に変化し得ることも歴史言語学では重要な点である.

 ・ Crystal, David, ed. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 6th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008. 295--96.
 ・ Bussmann, Hadumod. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trans. and ed. Gregory Trauth and Kerstin Kazzizi. London: Routledge, 1996.

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