#5178. 名義論的変化の2つのタイプ[lexicology][semantic_change][homonymic_clash][semantics][synonym][semiotics][onomasiology]


 昨日の記事「#5177. 語議論 (semasiology) と名議論 (onomasiology)」 ([2023-06-30-1]) で取り上げたように,意味変化 (semantic_change or semasiological change) とともに扱われることが多いが,明確に区別すべき過程として名議論的変化 (onomasiological change) というものがある.
 Traugott and Dasher (52--53) は,名義論的変化 ("onomasiological changes") について,Bréal の議論を参照する形で,2つのタイプを挙げている.

(i) Specialization: one element "becomes the pre-eminent exponent of the grammatical conception of which it bears the stamp" . . . , for example, the selection of que as the sole complementizer in French . . . .
(ii) Differentiation: two elements which are (near-)synonymous diverge. Paradigm examples include, in English, (a) the specialization, e.g. of hound when dog was borrowed from Scandinavian, and (b) loss of a form when sound change leads to "homonymic clash," e.g. ME let in the sense "prohibit" from OE lett- was lost after OE lætan "allow" also developed into ME let . . . .

 Bréal によれば,名義論的変化は,意味変化の話題でないばかりか,単純に名前の変化というわけでもなく,"the proper subject of the 'science of significations'" (95) ということらしい.
 正直にいうと,Bréal の説明は込み入っており理解しにくい.

 ・ Traugott, Elizabeth C. and Richard B. Dasher. Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: CUP, 2005.
 ・ Bréal, Michel. Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning. Trans. Mrs. Henry Cust. New York: Dover, 1964. 1900.

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