#5175. 言語の標準化と方言の死の関係[standardisation][dialect][dialectology][prestige][language_death]


 言語の標準化 (standardisation) は,1つの変種(方言)が社会的に威信のある変種とみなされて,その言語社会に広く受け入れられていく過程である.すると,他のすべての変種は,相対的に社会的価値が低くなり,使用範囲が狭まっていくことになりがちだ.結果として,それらの非標準変種は死に至ることもあるだろう.
 とはいえ,言語の標準化と方言の死の間に何らかの因果関係があるケースも多いに違いない.Jones and Singh (100) が,両者の精妙な関係について次のように議論している.

It should be pointed out, of course, that the standardisation of a language does not automatically entail the loss of its associated dialects: English dialects are still spoken today, many centuries after the emergence of standard English. However, we will see that the rise of a standard is mainly the result of sociopolitical and cultural factors and that its purpose is to unite the speech community, through knowledge of a codified, uniform variety. The rise of a standard is therefore likely to have a hand in dialect death for although the elevation on one variety to the standard leaves the other dialects intact, the fact that the standard language is the only one deemed appropriate for 'official' functions such as the media, education and government and is ultimately regarded as a symbol of loyalty for the whole community means that its associated dialects are often felt to be 'inferior' by their speakers and come to be reserved for non-official functions, such as for use with family and friends. As upward mobility comes to be attached to the standard language, dialects cease to be transmitted to the next generation and eventually stop being spoken.


 ・ 「#1786. 言語権と言語の死,方言権と方言の死」 ([2014-03-18-1])
 ・ 「#3457. 日本の消滅危機言語・方言」 ([2018-10-14-1])
 ・ 「#3666. 方言を捨てて標準語を採用するのは美容整形するのと同じか?」 ([2019-05-11-1])
 ・ 「#4256. 「言語の死」の記事セット」 ([2020-12-21-1])

 ・ Jones, Mari C. and Ishtla Singh. Exploring Language Change. Abingdon: Routledge, 2005.

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