#5033. 接尾辞 -ism の多義性[polysemy][suffix][terminology]


 一昨日の「#5031. 接尾辞 -ism の起源と発達」 ([2023-02-04-1]) に引き続き,-ism という生産的な接尾辞 (suffix) について.今回はその多義性に注目します.
 Webster の辞書の第3版に所収の A Dictionary of Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms によると,-ism には大きく4つの語義があります.「動作」「状態」「主義」「特徴」です.単語の具体例とともにみてみましょう.

-ism n suffix -s [ME -isme, fr. MF & L; MF -isme, partly fr. L -isma (fr. Gk), & partly fr. L -ismus, fr. Gk -ismos] 1 a : act, practice, or process --- esp. in nouns corresponding to verbs in -ize <criticism> <hypnotism> <plagiarism> b : manner of action or behavior characteristic of a (specified) person or thing <animalism> <Micawberism> 2 a : state, condition, or property <barbarianism> <polymorphism> b : abnormal state or condition resulting from excess of a (specified) thing <alcoholism> <morphinism> c : abnormal state or condition characterized by resemblance to a (specified) person or thing <mongolism> 3 a : doctrine, theory, or cult <Buddhism> <Calvinism> <Platonism> <salvationism> <vegetarianism> b : adherence to a system or a class of principles <neutralism> <realism> <socialism> <stoicism> 4 : characteristic or peculiar feature or trait <colloquialism> <Latinism> <poeticism>

 言語の話題でよく用いられる -ism は,最後の「特徴」の語義と関連するものです.「○○に特徴的な言葉遣い;○○語法」の意味で Americanism, Britishism, Canadianism, Irishism, Gallicism, vulgarism, witticism, neologism などがあります.

Referrer (Inside): [2023-02-08-1]

[ | 固定リンク | 印刷用ページ ]

Powered by WinChalow1.0rc4 based on chalow