#4236. intensifier の分類[intensifier][adverb][semantics][terminology]


 intensifier は通常「強意語」と訳されるが,専門的に広義には,意味の緩和,つまりマイナス方向の「強意」をも含む用語としてとらえておく必要がある.Quirk et al. (§§8.104--115) によると,intensifier は意味論の観点から以下のように下位区分される.

  ・ Maximizers: absolutely, altogether, completely, entirely, extremely, fully, perfectly, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly, in all respects, most
  ・ Boosters: badly, bitterly, deeply, enormously, far, greatly, heartily, highly, intensely, much, severely, so, strongly, terribly, violently, well, a great deal, a good deal, a lot, by far, very much
  ・ Approximators: almost, nearly, practically, virtually, as good as, all but
  ・ Compromisers: kind of, sort of, quite, rather, enough, sufficiently, more or less
  ・ Diminishers: mildly, partially, partly, quite, slightly, somewhat, in part, in some respects, to some extent, a bit, a little, least (of all), only, merely, simply, just, but
  ・ Minimizers: barely, hardly, little, scarcely, in the least, in the slightest, at all, a bit

 この数日間に「#4233. なぜ quite a few が「かなりの,相当数の」の意味になるのか?」 ([2020-11-28-1]),「#4235. quite a few は,下げて和らげおきながら最後に皮肉で逆転?」 ([2020-11-30-1]) の記事で副詞 quite の用法に注目してきたが,上の分類によると quite は Maximizers と Compromizers の2つのリストのなかに現われる.一般に,程度の概念を伴わない語句と共起する場合には Maximizer として機能し,程度を有する語句と共起する場合には Compromiser として機能するとされる.それぞれ例文を挙げておこう.

[ Maximizer として ]

 ・ Flying is quite the best way to travel.
 ・ I quite forgot about her birthday.
 ・ I quite understand.
 ・ The bottle is quite empty.
 ・ You're quite right.

[ Compromizer として ]

 ・ He plays quite well.
 ・ I quite enjoyed the party, but I've been to better ones.
 ・ It is quite cold, isn't it?
 ・ She quite likes him, but not enough to marry him.
 ・ The food in the cafeteria is usually quite good.


 ・ Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.

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